Immune reminisces about a year in COVID-19 immunology, Steph’s receiving the Pfizer vaccine, and answers to listener questions about a challenge study with common cold CoVs, T cell exhaustion, how CD4 T cells control infections, and more.

Immune catches up on COVID listener email, including discussions about long-term COVID, cross-reactive memory to SARS-CoV-2, common mucosal surfaces, the risky business of peptide mega-pools, immunodominant epitopes and much more.

Sallie joins Immune to discuss her career, emphasizing the importance of a good mentor and the ability to pivot, and her research, which has focused on mother to child transmission of infectious diseases including HIV/AIDS, CMV, and more recently, COVID-19/SARS-CoV-2.

Immune describes the striking loss of germinal centers in lymph nodes and spleen in patients with severe COVID-19, providing an explanation for short-lived humoral immunity and limited somatic hypermutation of antibodies to SARS-CoV-2.