Michael Merchlinsky joins TWiV to discuss the development of two smallpox antiviral drugs and two smallpox vaccines and their uses during the monkeypox outbreak.
In this special episode, Dr. Griffin answers questions about the recent cases of monkeypox including their origin, clinical presentation, diagnosis, treatment, and overall risk.
TWiV reviews recent cases of monkeypox, presence of SARS-CoV-2 RNA but not infectious virus in feces, and the association of autoantibodies to interferons with severe COVID-19.
TWiV explains why the concept of herd immunity might not apply to COVID-19, and the observation that smallpox vaccination causes an increase in skin bacteria that promote pathology and influence the immune response.
TWiV reviews the vials labeled smallpox that were not, re-emergence of enterovirus D68 in Europe, efficacy of inactivated SARS-CoV-2 vaccine, and cellular correlates of protection for an oral influenza virus vaccine.
Rich reviews the history of smallpox and the discovery of variola viral genomes in ancient DNA from human remains throughout Northern Europe, which pushes back the earliest date of smallpox virus infection to ~600–1050 CE, overlapping the Viking Age.
The TWiVerati discuss the FDA Advisory Committee deliberation on the anti-poxvirus drug tecovirimat, and immune cells in gut-associated lymphoid tissue as the major target during acute murine norovirus infection.
From the TWiV team, human cowpox infection possibly acquired from a pet cat, and a new giant mimivirus of green algae with genes encoding enzymes of fermentation.
The TWiV team explains how infectious horsepox virus – likely the ancestor of smallpox vaccines – was recovered from chemically synthesized DNA fragments.
Donald “D.A.” Henderson, a physician, educator, and epidemiologist who led the World Health Organization’s campaign to eradicate smallpox, died at 87 years of age on Aug. 19, 2016. Vincent was fortunate to have the opportunity to speak with DA Henderson in 2014 about his career, the smallpox eradication effort, and what it means for the eradication of polio.