TWiVsters review off-season epidemics of respiratory syncytial virus in Australia after easing of COVID-19 restrictions, and impaired innate immune responses in upper respiratory tract cells from patients with severe COVID-19.

The Guardians of the TWiV-o-verse discuss the process of codon deoptimization for the production of experimental infectious attenuated viral vaccines, and how a respiratory syncytial virus with 619 base changes was rescued by genomes with very large internal deletions.

Kizzmekia Corbett joins TWiV to review her career and her work on respiratory syncytial virus, influenza virus, and coronaviruses and coronavirus vaccines, including her role in development and testing of a spike-encoding mRNA vaccine, and then we review the Nobel Prize for discovery of hepatitis C virus.

Erin joins the TWiVirions to discuss a computer exploit encoded in DNA, creation of pigs free of endogenous retroviruses, and mutations in the gene encoding an innate sensor of RNA in children with severe viral respiratory disease.