TWiV reviews the 2023 Nobel Prize in Physiology or Medicine awarded to Katalin Karikó and Drew Weissman for their identification nucleoside base modifications that enabled the development of effective mRNA vaccines against COVID-19, and accelerated mutation of SARS-CoV-2 in white-tailed deer.

The TWiVumvirate reviews this years crop of Nobel Prizes, and how cells prevent leakage of mitochondrial double-stranded RNA into the cytoplasm, which would otherwise lead to the production of interferon.