TWiV reviews influenza H5N1 in North American cows and in birds throughout New York City, polio health emergency extended, ChatGPT to control vaccine hesitancy, increasing viral hepatitis worldwide, dengue public health alert in Puerto Rico, cherry trees drowning in Washington DC, death of iron lung Paul, origin and dispersal history of hepatitis B virus in Eastern Eurasia, and antibody-independent protection against heterologous SARS-CoV-2 challenge.

Paul Offit returns to TWiV for a discussion of SARS-CoV-2 bivalent boosters containing ancestral and Omicron spike mRNAs, including their composition, why they are being recommended by CDC, and who would benefit the most from them.

Shane Crotty returns to TWiV to review the immunology of COVID-19, including differences between infection and vaccination, increased breadth of antibodies after infection followed by vaccination, the roles of T cells, and whether booster vaccinations are needed.

The TWiV team consider how the kinase mTOR modulates the antibody response to provide broad protection against influenza virus, and explore the problems with scientific research.