Philip writes:
I have traveled extensively to South America.  I had a Yellow Fever Vaccine in 1991 and I still have the vaccination certificate.  

As I understand it, the one dose is good for life as far as entry requirements although the vaccine itself is only good for 10 years.

I am 65 years of age and as I understand it, some caution is needed as to receiving a booster.

What level of protection do I have after 30+ years?  Is there a test to determine this?

Ken writes:

I am curious about a relatively minor long-lasting covid symptom – a cough. I’m a healthy 71-year-old who has had a cough since getting covid for the first time in mid-December (and I’m fully vaccinated and boosted). No other symptoms. It was a very unpleasant cough the first 2 or 3 days of covid but minor since then. I suspect that most people just tolerate it without contacting a medical authority. Could it be very common but largely overlooked? Or is there data that might show how long it might persist?

Thanks in advance,


Kari writes:

Hi Dr. Griffin,

Our family has been patiently waiting for our youngest to turn six months of age so she can get her COVID vaccine. She will finally be eligible in just a few weeks. When I mentioned this to a friend, they told me to “do my research carefully“ because there are new reports of heart problems in children getting vaccinated. This seems untrue to me based on what I have read and in listening to TWIV.

While the risk/benefit is not as high than in the elderly, it still seems that heart issues (esp in those outside of the teenage/young men age group) have very low chances of issues in comparison to actually getting COVID or MISC. Is this still the case? I noticed some countries are no longer encouraging vaccination in the youngest patients.

This nervous momma wants to make sure I have all the most updated information. Should we wait a little more time between first and second/third doses to improve response and allow it to mature/lower the risk of side effects? Is Moderna of Pfizer a better choice? It seems not many are getting their youngest vaccinated so I hope there is enough data to glean the rate of rare side effects, etc. Thank so much!

Kari, California

Don writes:

Thanks for reading my response in today’s episode of TVIW 990.

In your reply, Daniel makes the logical point “there should be some labeling”.

While I absolutely agree, the part of FDA that regulates these products (Center for Drug Evaluation Research CDER) does not allow hand sanitizer brands to make viral claims, or it at least makes the standard of proof so impossibly high that it’s not cost effective for the companies to make the investment.

FDA would require that killing or decreasing the number of microbes on the skin by a certain magnitude produces a corresponding clinical reduction in infection or disease caused by such bacteria or virus. Essentially the company would have to do a clinical trial to make the virucidal claim.

– Don