Anthony writes:

There’s some work using the olfactory bulb:

Sheep’s mucosa shows the way to more effective medicine for severe neurological diseases

This does not seem to be the case with recreational drug use where cocaine ” is absorbed through the mucous membranes lining the nose and sinuses.”

Response of mice to aerosolized rabies virus. One mouse exposed to Efv1 and 1 mouse exposed to Lnv developed signs of rabies 17 and 8 days after aerosol exposure, respectively. Two mice exposed to Tbv developed signs of rabies, at 10 and 14 days after aerosol exposure. All 4 mice were killed and found to be rabies positive by the DFA . The 5 surviving mice developed anti-rabies VNA (figure 2 ). At ∼5 months after aerosol exposure, the remaining mouse exposed to Tbv died of unknown causes.

Might one presume that the olfactory bulb is an easy to reach portal to the brain for aerosolized rabies?


Basel writes:

Hi Dr. Racaniello.

I hope this makes it to a snippet, and I’m sure it will make Dr. Condit intrigued to share his experience with us.

A case report of cowpox infection in human, likely delivered by a cat!

Chris writes:

Dear TWiV

I wanted to bring to your attention a recent publication, authored by Grieg F. Steward and myself, that describes an interesting virus that encodes fermentation genes, titled:

“A giant virus infecting green algae encodes key fermentation genes”

The article is open access and can be downloaded from ScienceDirect at:

Thanks for your great work every week.



Darren writes:


Regarding viral piRNAs in other animals, this pre-print of ours might be of some interest:

Don’t EVEome without it IS the episode with piRNAs  Andino paper

Clarissa writes:

Hi Vincent,

I’ve sent these links to Rich and he suggested that I should send them to you/TWIV.

I don’t know if you’ve seen these papers that appeared in mSphere about the horsepox synthesis.

Best regards,

Clarissa Damaso

Congratulations to the TWIV team. I really enjoyed TWIV 478!

Here is Mike Imperiale (Editor)’s commentary on why mSphere is doing


Here is Greg Koblentz’ article:

And here is Diane’s and Gigi’s  article:

Clarissa Damaso, Ph.D.

Associate Professor

Lab. Biologia Molecular de Virus

Instituto de Biofisica Carlos Chagas Filho

Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro

Rio de Janeiro, RJ

Kerri writes:

Hello TWiV Team!

I adore your podcast, and the related podcasts TWiP, TWiEVO, and TWiM! I can’t emphasize enough how helpful it is to have  current research and scientific events put into perspective by such knowledgeable experts. As a graduate student in a disease ecology lab, I find these podcasts an invaluable resource. I wish I had discovered them sooner, but at least it will be a very long time before I run out of quality educational entertainment!

Keep up the great work!

Ken writes:

Dear TWIV podcasters,

I recently read that our layer of dead skin protects against viruses since they can’t interact with dead cells. So is there evidence that people that actively remove dead skin by exfoliation (e.g. with pumice stones) are more susceptible to viral infections?


-Ken from Oxford