TWiV rebuts a recent opinion piece which falsely claims that the COVID-19 pandemic began in a lab (it began in Nature), followed by a discussion of Paride bacteriophage, which has the unsual property of being able to kill dormant, antibiotic-tolerant cells by direct lytic replication.

In his weekly clinical update, Dr. Griffin reports the third case of influenza H5N1 infection in a human, this time with respiratory symptoms, an H5 avian influenza virus wastewater dashboard, FDA approves Moderna’s mRNA vaccine for respiratory syncytial virus, vaccine advisors to FDA recommend switching from the XBB.1.5 variant to JN.1 for fall COVID-19 vaccine formulations, weekly US COVID update, a controlled human exhaled breath aerosol experimental study on the relative efficacy of masks and respirators as source control for viral aerosol shedding from people infected with SARS-CoV-2, systematic review of early use of oral antiviral drugs and the risk of post COVID-19 syndrome, long-COVID autonomic syndrome in working age and work ability impairment, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention estimates that 5.3% of Americans currently have long COVID, and the National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine presented a report with  a number of conclusions about long-COVID diagnosis, symptoms, and impact on daily function.

In his weekly clinical update, Dr. Griffin delves into highly pathogenic H5N1 infection of hunting dogs, dairy cattle, humans and alpacas before reviewing the recent statistics on SARS-CoV-2 infection, risks factors associated with the development…

In his weekly clinical update, Dr. Griffin delves highly pathogenic H5N1 biology including its circulation in New York City, being able to infect cells within mammary glands and why testing is not supported before reviewing the recent statistics on SARS-CoV-2 infection, how vaccination reduced deaths and hospitalizations associated with COVID-19 and how to take off PPE to reduce virus transmission, discussing the guidelines for spring administration of COVID vaccines boosters, the emergency use application of a pre-exposure prophylactic, a drug interaction database and the global phase 3 trail of a novel antiviral, continues to dispel the myth of viral rebound, when to use steroids and the benefits of convalescent plasma, what do when healthcare workers succumb to SARS-CoV-2 infection, reminisces about when available monoclonal antibody therapies were effective, and discusses muscle training/exercise for treatment of PASC/long COVID and the use of RNase for its treatment. For more information about long COVID-19 listen to TWiV 1088.

TWiV reviews results of a phase 3 trial of a self-amplifying mRNA COVID-19 vaccine, and the finding that baseline innate and T cell populations are correlates of protection against symptomatic influenza virus infection independent of serology.

In his weekly clinical update, Dr. Griffin delves into discussing drinking “raw” milk possessing H5N1 influenza virus, if the virus can reproduce in the human gut, and the meaning of finding viral RNA in wastewater samples before reviewing the recent statistics on SARS-CoV-2 infection, the guidelines for spring administration of COVID vaccines boosters, withdrawal of AstraZeneca’s SARS-CoV-2 vaccine from the European market, discusses the emergency use application of a pre-exposure prophylactic, continues to dispel the myth of viral rebound, when to use steroids and the benefits of convalescent plasma, what do when healthcare workers succumb to SARS-CoV-2 infection, if administration of colchicine for the management of COVID-19, compares and provides information for the enrollment into the NIH clinical trials of long COVID and its effects on sleep, exercise intolerance and the cognitive profile in multiple sclerosis and post-COVID, exercise intolerance and post-exertional malaise. For more information about cow and milk infection by H5N1 listen to the discussion with Richard Webby on TWiV 1113 and for long COVID-19 listen to TWiV 1088. Dr. Griffin also provides a list of apps for monitoring one’s health including brain health.

In his weekly clinical update, Dr. Griffin deep dives into infections of dairy cattle with high pathogenic influenza H5N1, how long virus has been circulating and if known anti-influenza antivirals can reduce secondary attack rates, before reviewing the recent statistics on SARS-CoV-2 infection, the guidelines for spring administration of COVID vaccines boosters, whether COVID booster takes associates with long COVID prevalence, discusses the emergency use application of a pre-exposure prophylactic, if administration of oral antiviral therapies can prevent the onset of post-acute sequelae following SARS-CoV-2 infection, continues to dispel the myth of viral rebound, when to use steroids and the benefits of convalescent plasma, what do when healthcare workers succumb to SARS-CoV-2 infection, compares and contrasts the cognitive profile in multiple sclerosis and post-COVID, exercise intolerance following SARS-CoV-2 infection and the epidemiology of the pandemic in a Kenyan refugee camp. For more information about this body of work, listen to TWiV 1088.

In his weekly clinical update, Dr. Griffin begins with discussing if the antibiotic neomycin is really a pan-antiviral countermeasure, then reviews the recent statistics on SARS-CoV-2 infection before deep diving into if shedding and the rapid antigen test results correlate, the guidelines for spring administration of COVID vaccines boosters, whether COVID booster associates with the long COVID prevalence, discusses the emergency use application of a pre-exposure prophylactic, revised guidelines for how to treat respiratory viral infection guidelines by the CDC, the caveats for improper use of antibiotics to treat SARS-CoV-2 (a viral infection), continues to dispel the myth of viral rebound, when to use steroids and the benefits of convalescent plasma, what do when healthcare workers succumb to SARS-CoV-2 infection, if administration of an anti-immunoglobulin E monoclonal antibody can be used for COVID-19 treatment, if inhibiting T-cell activation will reduce secretion and production of inflammatory cytokines including IL-6, if changes in the gut microbiome associate with post -acute COVID-19 syndrome, and the pulmonary and neurologic determinants of long COVID-19 such as the presence of neurofilament light chain in plasma. For more information about this body of work, listen to TWiV 1088.

TWiV reviews avian H5N1 influenza virus in the US, measles at highest levels in England, positive selection underlies repeated knockout of ORF8 in SARS-CoV-2 evolution, and cross-species spill-over potential of the H9N2 bat influenza A virus.