MicrobeTV is an independent podcast network for people who are interested in the life sciences. Our shows are about viruses, bacteria, parasites, evolution, immunology and neuroscience.

Vincent Racaniello

MicrobeTV was founded in 2015 by Vincent Racaniello, a professor of Microbiology & Immunology at Columbia University. Vincent began his first podcast, This Week in Virology, in September 2008, together with Dickson Despommier, father of the Vertical Farm. Although Vincent viewed the creation of a science podcast as an experiment, he was surprised when people began to listen. Since then he has created five other podcasts, and you can find all of them here at MicrobeTV.

Photo by Chris Suspect

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137 comments on “About MicrobeTV

  1. Does twiv have an charitable org behind it? I looked at colmbia’s gift page and couldn’t find twiv or anything related.

    Also, if you had an org behind you you could register to have folks purchases donate towards twiv/twi*.

    If there is a way to give charitably please add a link/info on the site.

    Is there a fear of potential conflict of interest if you take money from the wrong folks ala Kevin Folta?

    • Dan, thank you for asking. I’m planning to start a Patreon account to raise money for MicrobeTV – mainly so I can hire someone to help, and travel more to record remotely. The Amazon idea is great, I will look into it. I do have to be careful where I get money from – that’s why crowd sourcing is the safest bet.

      To be clear – I’m not trying to make money, only to be able to make more compelling content.

    • Justin Mar 19, 2016

      I absolutely would use the Amazon link; and I probably spend about $100 a month there so hopefully that adds up.

  2. Ken Rosenthal Jul 27, 2016

    Dear Dr. Vincent Racaniello
    As an immuno-virologist, I’ve long appreciated your ‘This Week in Virology’ podcasts. I know that from time to time your show visits and records from various research institutions. I’m based at McMaster University in Hamilton, Ontario, Canada. McMaster has a relatively strong history in virology and I wonder if you might be interested in conducting a show from McMaster. I have no doubt that our students would find this interesting. How do you go about deciding where to record your podcasts and what is involved in getting you to visit us?
    Best regards
    Ken Rosenthal, Professor, Dept. Pathology & Mol. Med; Member, McMaster Immunology Research Centre (MIRC) & Michael G. DeGroote Institute for Infectious Disease Research (IIDR)

    • profvrr Jun 20, 2017

      Thank you Ken! Would love to do a TWiV from McMaster. Reach out by email and we can arrange a visit.

      • Molly Drake Jun 27, 2022

        Hi there,

        I have a question. What would make a SARS-CoV2 antibodies spike protein test be extremely high but the IgG, IgA and IgM antibodies test be normal? Vaccinated 1/21 and boosted 12/21. Thank you!!

  3. Michael Martin Nov 3, 2016

    Vincent: I have been listening to TWIV for the past year or so. I am a practicing pediatrician in Rochester, NY. A large part of my daily practice involves viruses, and I am so old, most of the information you present on TWIV was unknown and unimagined when I went to medical school. I am currently slogging through your 2 volume text, Virology, and listening regularly to the podcast. I must admit, a lot of the conversation goes over my head, but I hope it will fit eventually. Keep up the good work. I enjoy the conversational style and the obvious enthusiasm that you and your panel have for virology, and for life in general.

  4. bobby and ling Jun 18, 2017

    happy fathers day to one of the best observed father’s we have met.
    always good to all of his children and lings children too.
    (terry and luna) woof

    dear vinny,
    have a happy father’s day today.

    regards and remember to have a nice glass of something you like to reflect and celebrate you.
    you might be in the running for father of the year, not sure but sounds good anyway.

  5. Phillip Dec 18, 2017

    Hi Vincent,
    I just set up PayPal to donate $10/month to microbe.tv via your website (with some difficulty, please see below). After the election I decided even Public Radio news was toxic–at best ephemera easily forgotten and at worst a constant but unnecessary reminder of all that is worst about mankind. Whereas every single episode of every podcast on microbe.tv is exactly the opposite. I spend all the time I used to spend listening to news now listening to microbe.tv podcasts. I’m not exaggerating. I don’t listen to or read any news intentionally.

    Feel free to talk about politics as much as you want, by the way, it is literally the only discussion of that topic I hear these days.

    I just wanted to mention that the first two browsers I attempted this on, Firefox and Chrome, did not allow me to change the “$0.00” field on your contribute page. I finally got it to work on Internet Explorer. You might be missing out on some contributions there!
    Phillip SanMiguel

  6. David Jensen Dec 30, 2018


    Can you add a paypal account to your donation options. I closed my Patreon account due to their behavior but would like to continue supporting your work.

  7. Rishat Oct 19, 2019

    The world community risks a new year during the period of the pandemic. In Japan, the flu epidemic is 2 months earlier. Something to do. This chaotic strain of H3N2, which also tends to cause the most severe
    flu seasons, especially in older people, makes the development of a “universal” vaccine
    against influenza (see J.ID: NIAID Universal Vaccine Strategic Plan
    against influenza) more significant. more important than ever.
    Credit NIAID
    Despite the progress made, it may take 5 years (or more) before we see
    commercially available universal flu vaccine. Until then, we must
    work with what we have.
    This trend convinced WHO to switch vaccine recommendations for the South.
    hemisphere next year to a completely different strain (virus similar to A / South
    Australia / 34/2019 (H3N2)), which raised concerns about vaccine efficacy
    Northern Hemisphere this fall. I propose to make a vaccine based on my blood in
    for several days.

  8. Rishat Oct 27, 2019

    Got a second general blood test done by an independent laboratory. Lymphogocytes in 1 analysis made in Moscow 50%, in 2 analysis done in Almetyevsk 48% with a norm of 37%. I don’t have any diseases that increase the number of lymphocytes. The local immunologist said lymphocytosis was due to the activity of t-cells. T-cells with a norm of 450-850 ab. the number of muni 1808. T-cells are the most powerful weapon against the flu. The best vaccine is a vaccine made on the basis of human blood. From the emergence of a new influenza virus to the advent of a vaccine against the virus, several
    months. I suggest reducing vaccine production to a few days. I propose to infect me, then select antibodies from my blood and then copy them. I can not live to see the next pandemic. I am ill with two rare internal incurable diseases. 1) non-sugar
    diabetes, another type of diabetes. I can drink more than 20 liters of water per day but I drink from 3 to 5 liters of water, I have been taking desmopresin medicine for 38 years. I am 42 years old.2) olivopontoceribral degeneration, symptoms of unsteady gait, speech retardation.

    This chaotic strain of H3N2, which also tends to cause the most severe flu seasons, especially in older people, makes the development of a “universal” vaccine
    against influenza (see J.ID: NIAID Strategic Plan for the Development of a Universal Influenza Vaccine) is more relevant. more important than ever.
    Credit NIAID
    Despite the progress made, it may take 5 years (or more) before we see the commercially available universal flu vaccine. Until then, we must work with what we have.
    This trend convinced WHO to switch the recommendations for vaccines for the southern hemisphere next year to a completely different strain (a virus like A / South Australia / 34/2019 (H3N2)), which raised concerns about the effectiveness of the Northern Hemisphere vaccine this fall.

  9. Samuel Lyons Feb 25, 2020

    First off I want to thank you and your team for delivering such an informative podcast. I spend a good bit of every year in SE Asia. Poor air quality persists throughout. Last year Chiangmai (Northern Thailand) experienced several days when the AQI exceeded 784. Farmers in surrounding mountains use the slash & burn method to clear land for cultivation. This occurs from late January through April every year. The smoke from the fires settles in Chiangmai. Thai researchers have conducted studies which show that children in the region have reduced lung capacity. Older persons are subject to upper respiratory distress. My concern is that environment might be ideal for virus propagation. Please comment

  10. ken parkyn Mar 6, 2020

    Sorry…not a professional in the field, but a regular avid listener.
    I only wish the subject was taught in my school days in the 50-60’s.

    I LOVE the closing theme music of TWIV podcasts,
    But it’s so short !
    We only get about 5 seconds of it.

    Is it a fully composed piece or just a closing snipett?

  11. I will publish my article in the journal avian flu talk in Russian with the permission of the site administrators. My very strong immunity can cure coronavirus

  12. Elizabeth Pinkhasov Mar 31, 2020

    I would be interested to hear your opinion about the following article:
    A century-old tuberculosis vaccine, bacillus Calmette-Guerin, or BCG vaccine, could protect health care workers from the coronavirus, according to a report.
    Read in New York Post: https://apple.news/AAwgm76v1S9-PpUILIoCZgA

  13. David Lawrance Apr 8, 2020

    Love TWIV. Thank you so much for doing this. Y

    ou mentioned successful vaccination against Covid using a vaccine patch in mice.

    You’ll recall John Adams having his family immunized against smallpox using infected scabs. That technique lead to many fatalities. But SARS-CoV-2, though it readily infects respiratory epithelium isn’t known to infect cornified skin. Though scarification may have been a terrible way to immunize against smallpox, I wonder about scarification using infectious Covid material. The amount of time it will take to scale up vaccine production for a mass immunization program will take months and months. But, there iplenty of infectious material. I realize it is a dumb idea, but I have no end of idle time on my hand now to come up with dumb ideas.

  14. Steve Myers MT(ASCP) Apr 16, 2020

    Dear Dr. Racaniello, I love the TWIV podcast and have been constant listener since mid 2019. I am a Director of a local clinical laboratory in a rural Hospital in Indiana where today it is 46 F and 8 C. On review of standard operating practices for handling Blood and Urine samples for SARS-CoV-2 in the lab CDC advised to only centrifuge these with rotor caps to prevent aerosols. I don’t remember what episode of TWIV it was but it was mentioned that there has been no detection of “infective” SARS-CoV-2 viron in Blood or Urine. Wondering what the TWIV team thought about this requirement. Thanks for all the insight the team provides to those on front lines making decisions for best possible outcomes. Staying plugged in for advice on the Serology tests coming on line and attempting to acquire the best fit, with minimal cross reaction to common Coronaviruses. Since the last TWIV Conronavirus HKU1 has been the conversation covering these kits again thanks for the heads up!!

  15. Catherine Apr 23, 2020

    I’ve just discovered your podcast, so apologies if this question has been asked before:

    We expect that through self-isolation that COVID-19 transmission will decrease – ideally until it is eliminated. Let’s say we do this perfectly and we don’t transmit any virus between now and the end of lockdown. Will common cold virus transmission (and transmission of other viruses) also cease?

  16. Shaila May 5, 2020

    “Scientists say a now-dominant strain of the coronavirus appears to be more contagious than original” From LA times
    “The new strain appeared in February in Europe, migrated quickly to the East Coast of the U.S. and has been the dominant strain across the world since mid-March, the scientists wrote.”
    Please talk about this .

  17. Susan spaulding May 14, 2020

    Thank you Vincent et al for your podcasts. Nothing better for my sanity in early March than to listen to your podcasts while handsewing a mask. Nowadays, I find myself only able to do the dishes and kitchen prep by listening to a podcast, so keep them up!

    I took microbiology back in pre-nursing in 1979 and got an “A.” I was told that only pre=med students got As in that course. By that time though I was a single parent.

    I told my son that if I hadn’t become a nurse, I would have liked to be a microbiologist. My son majored in micro and has been in biotech and is currently a process manager for primers, probes, DNA, etc. in California. So it all worked out.

    Came across TwIv because I became disabled by fibromyalgia pain and ME/CFS, hence David Tuller and then you.
    I’m trying to learn more biology and virology so I can better follow the technical parts of your podcasts and virology 101. I can follow the clinical, public health and infectious disease parts quite well.

    All the best from my kitchen and me.

  18. Longo Maurizio May 19, 2020

    Thanks a lot from your Podcast and transmission, my name is Maurizio Longo I’m a Surgeon from Padua Italy graduated in 1979 at the University of Padua and I had part of my training in England.
    I hold an M.D. passing your F.M.G.E.M.S. since1985.
    I’m very fond in your transmission since March when I began to follow you all.
    I wonder about the actual prevalence ov the Coronavirus-Sars-2 I Understand that you calculated that abaout in 3-4% and the same was in Italy since some day ago . Now new study in Italy are modyfing the prevalence about the 16 %. Is that right that the Herd immunity for this virus is about the 70%…. ?? Thanks since now for your answer. I’m looking forward to my retirements to come and visit one day the Columbia University and follow one of yours academic lesson. Sincerely Yours Longo Maurizio

  19. Hi Vincent I am a lay person who is enjoying listening to you and your guest discussing all things related to COVID-19 and other interesting topics. I recently came across an interview with Dr. Meryl Nass that I found insightful. Not sure if she has ever been a guest on your podcast but I would imagine her commentary and expertise can be helpful as part of your weekly discussions.

  20. Allen Honig Jun 17, 2020

    Hello Professor Vincent,

    What happened to Dr. Daniel Griffin’s weekly clinical updates?
    As an emergency physician I have missed him the last couple of Fridays.
    Hope he’s well
    Allen Honig, MD

  21. Scott Jun 26, 2020

    Hello TWiV et al.

    I was forwarded this Frontiers in Molecular Biosciences paper from my mom who is a chemical engineer: Does Early Childhood Vaccination Protect Against COVID-19?

    This paper uses the observation that children have milder COVID-19 to build a premise that the MMR vaccine protects against SARS-CoV-2. As they state, they “hypothesize that the measles, mumps, and rubella (MMR) vaccine could provide a broad neutralizing antibody against numbers of diseases, including COVID-19” basing this “on the 30 amino acid sequence homology between the SARS-CoV-2 Spike (S) glycoprotein (PDB: 6VSB) of both the measles virus fusion (F1) glycoprotein (PDB: 5YXW_B) and the rubella virus envelope (E1) glycoprotein (PDB: 4ADG_A).” In their in silico analysis, they found that a portion of the SARS-CoV-2 spike had similar amino acid sequence to two portions of the measles and rubella epitopes. The portion of the the spike they focus on is not in the RBD. Beyond the in silico work they do not provide any other experimental evidence to support their claim of cross-protection by MMR.

    I was unhappy with this paper. I felt like this study took an observation and made a completely wild claim. I am a postdoc immunologist, but humoral immunity is a bit outside my wheelhouse, and viruses are outside the range of my training. Is my frustration at this study valid or I am off the mark?

    I did reply to my mom’s email with a mostly reserved reply:
    “The MMR vaccine probably doesn’t protect anyone from COVID-19. However, the MMR vaccine does an incredibly good job at protecting against much more serious (in many cases life-threatening) diseases in children. This study relies on pretty weak correlational data to suggest that antibodies that may or may not be generated by the MMR vaccine recognize a part of the Spike protein on SARS-CoV-2. The Spike protein binds to a receptor on our cells (ACE2), which is necessary for the virus to enter cells. The part of the Spike protein they suggest that the MMR vaccine-generating antibodies might bind is not important for binding of Spike to ACE2. This portion of the Spike protein (assuming that the structure along with the sequence is similar) is probably not even exposed for antibodies to bind.”

    Was my response correct? Should it have been milder or harsher? Is there anything else I should have or could have included?


    Postdoc, University of Wisconsin-Madison

  22. Hi,

    Can Microbe TV be followed on LinkedIn?


  23. Steve Jul 12, 2020

    Hi Twivs
    Here in the UK a slogan “clunk click every trip” was advertised to promote the wearing seat belts in our cars.
    A young boy’s observation recently on your show got me thinking, “arse holes spread aerosols”. Maybe such a slogan would show people the way with wearing a mask.?

  24. Neil Lattin Jul 12, 2020

    I’m a 2 month listener to your podcast, but I can say there is nothing I enjoy more while driving home daily than listening to you all. I am a family physician who is Medical Director of a nursing home in Cecil County, MD. We recently had a horrific outbreak of COVID-19 infection starting in April with about 80% of the residents contracting the illness and with 18 deaths. We are working and thinking hard how to prevent a repeat since we are now taking new residents, all of whom have tested negative and a 2nd bad outbreak could seriously jeopardize our continued viability. The issue of congregation of residents is huge and the solutions are not easy. We and I am sure other facilities cannot afford the huge expense that would be involved with building basically a doubling of our rooms so that they would all be private. So one of my nurses wondered whether there would be benefit to having all rooms have negative pressure, so that if an infection were to occur we could possibly control spread to other rooms. I might add that we followed every CDC recommendation regarding having all positive residents moved to a special COVID wing of the facility, everyone in the facility wears PPE always, and we will be testing all staff on a weekly basis for now and we had never been cited for any infection prevention deficiencies in the past. So, is there any benefit to having negative pressure rooms throughout the facility? I know nothing about this. The issue with nursing homes may have come up in the past, but I haven’t heard anything about on TWIF since I’ve been listening Thanks again for a terrific podcast.

  25. Susan Abe Jul 16, 2020

    Wow! I can’t believe that I’d never heard of you despite all my studies. I’ve already bookmarked your Amazon affiliate program and since we are still sheltering-in-place, we spend hundreds of dollars a month on the site.

  26. rick nemshick Jul 23, 2020

    interview with Fauci, who is about to throw out the first pitch in baseball! was outstanding.
    Looking for the old one, you mentioned from Fauci 7 years ago for an hour?

    could not seem to weave my way through website to it. HS math teacher age 66 who started writing about and talking to students about Covid before it was named in December 2019, and have been tracking the math of it.

    truly would appreciate help.

    thanks regardless,
    if they keep him off network, we find him.

    suggestion? sell tshirts “IN FAUCI WE TRUST” and make some money for research.

    please contact me. again thanks
    rick nemshick

  27. Great Show! I’m a Professional Engineer and a lot of the information goes past me (though I do have two reverse ELISA patents) but it is more informative than any other media I have found.

    You need to add some swag that says “All Models are Wrong, some are Useful”! Selling computer carry bags and backpacks would also be good (that’s what I would be more likely to buy as I have enough mugs and tee shirts).

    Thanks for your work,

  28. Lisa Gsbriel Jul 29, 2020

    $5 Million Competition for New Rapid COVID Test.
    This just showed up today on medscape!

    Here is something Dr Mina might be interested in checking out!
    Thanks for all you do with TWIX programs! I’ve been sending out those letters to my Congressman.

    Longtime listener,
    Lisa Ann Gabriel RNP
    San Diego, CA


  29. Fred Q. Vroom, M.D. Jul 30, 2020

    Vincent, Brianne, Rich, Dickson, Alan, Daniel, Katy, Anthony and all of TWIV, you are a gift to humanity. I think you should push for a 10 minute $1-sputum test anybody could read. 10 teachers or workers could test 1,000 students or workers and daily have a virus free zone.
    I would say any test over 24 hours is useless and don’t bother. Cancel all the PCR tests as useless for finding fragments of non-infectious virus.
    I was an Associate Professor of Medicine in Neurology at the University of Florida, Gainesville in 1974, when I joined a Tallahassee group in private practice, long before Rich arrived. We have an Endowment supporting Education and Research made up of professors, doctors and healthcare workers who have helped 295 Ph.D. candidates with their research in neuroscience at Florida State University and the University of Florida to the tune of $500,000.
    I have a $1,000 contribution for TWIV if you have a 501-C-3 and their address.
    Stay well and keep up your outstanding work.

  30. lewis cary Jul 30, 2020

    Great educational show.

    1. HTC cannot prevent sars2 entry to cells. Agree?
    2. HTC promotes Zn++ into cells.
    3. Zn++ inhibits sars2 replication.
    4. Is MEDCRAM 34 B.S?
    5. Are there any legit studies with 40mg/d Zn++ and 200mg/d HTC starting
    after 7 days or earlier after infection? Not symptoms.
    6. After 7 days of symptoms you need a steroid and HTC will probably not help.

    Lewis Cary
    old, retired, tired

  31. Al Aburto Jul 30, 2020

    This is my letter sent to my district representative and senators of California (revised letter originally from Charles):

    Dear [name];

    When it comes to our national response to SARS-COV-2, it is clear that we have a failed policy. If you disagree, please explain the graph at: https://flic.kr/p/2jo9bxq

    It is a comparison of how we are doing with respect to the rest of the G8 countries. The graph has been normalized for population differences. I truly believe that the results are indefensible, but if you disagree, please try to convince me.

    Looking forward it is obvious we need more testing, a lot more! I see that the FDA approved Quest’s COVID-19 test for ‘pooled’ samples just recently. That is a step in the right direction, but it is not nearly enough. We need Warp Speed/ACTIV to put money into very low cost and fast antigen testing that does not require a lot of training to administer. These low cost antigen tests just need to be good enough to catch those that are shedding infectious amounts of virus. The tests can be done daily, at home, in the work place, anywhere! As Dr. Fauci said during a recent interview (link below) about this exact topic, “don’t let the perfect be the enemy of the good”. According to Dr. Michael Mina (an Assistant Professor of Epidemiology at Harvard), testing often with fast turnaround is much more important than accuracy such as provided by a PCR test (links below).

    Bottom line, we need all of Congress to get involved in pushing/funding Warp Speed/ACTIV to develop SARS-COV-2 testing that can be performed by untrained or at the very most minimally trained personnel, without special equipment, with the test performed on saliva, with results in about 10 minutes and cost of about $1.00, paid by the government.

    This is not pie in the sky. We can do this and when we do, we can safely open businesses, schools and places of worship. We have very competent federal and university research labs that can take on a large part of the development that private enterprise may not want to do because they are profit oriented.

    We are at war with SARS-COV-2 and we must bring all our resources to bear on the virus. It is not acceptable to allow so many to die and for the economy to be destroyed when we can prevent it. We can stop the virus cold with daily testing and self-isolation if positive, with cost covered by the government.

    Respectfully Yours,

    [city], [state]

    Dr. Fauci link (13 minute mark): https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=a_Vy6fgaBPE

    Dr. Mina links: https://www.nytimes.com/2020/07/03/opinion/coronavirus-tests.html and (all of it is really good, but if you are in a hurry skip to the 22 minute mark) https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kDj4Zyq3yOA

    A great 17 minute summary: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=h7Sv_pS8MgQ&feature=youtu.be

    Dr. Daniel Griffin explains further, first 30 minutes: https://www.microbe.tv/twiv/twiv-645/

  32. Love your shows TWIV and Immune. I understand that there is some concern that antibodies from recovered COVID-19 patients may have later cross reactivity but that is unlikely. I wonder about colostrum? Bovine or other types? I am a nutritionist/scientist and it just occurred to me as something that might be helpful (along with Vitamin D).
    Look forward to learning your thoughts.

  33. Wendy Thompson Aug 4, 2020


    Can you tell me where the letters are located that I can edit and send to school administrators and government officials here in NJ relating to the fast paper test?

    Love your show.

    Sincerely, Wendy Thompson

  34. Barbara Henninger Aug 4, 2020

    The paper strip test for Covid 19 was on national news tonight. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=2M42EBqF_iw

  35. Dr Brijmohan Malvi Aug 8, 2020

    Dear Vincent
    I am a general surgeon practicing in a town in central part of India. I am your student and learning Virology from your lectures and twiv . Kindly send your bank details so that I may also contribute some money.

    • Laurie Schultz Aug 28, 2020

      HI, I am not TWiV but there is a donate section on their website. I have tried it and it works : )

  36. Char Glenn Aug 9, 2020

    Naive question from Portland Oregon
    (71 F = 21.7 C headed to 83 F = 28 C) Gorgeous summer days are the reason we live here.

    I started to listen after TWIV was featured on MedCram.
    Many years ago I took microbiology in college and infectious disease rotations in medical training, but I mostly paid attention to bacteria.
    The “Evolutionary origins of the SARS-CoV2 sarbecovirus lineage” becomes interesting when you all discuss it. I still need some very basic info..
    My engineer husband asks if the SARS CoV2 can recombine in humans, allowing more lethality to develop.
    I will do more reading but I have the impression that recombination happens only in the host animals (bats) and only replication happens in humans.
    Maybe you can tell us where to start reading.
    Thank you

  37. Jessica Clinkenbeard Aug 11, 2020

    Hi! I’m writing to you from Sacramento, California were it 83F/28C.

    I’ve recently found your podcast after it was mentioned on the Covid Daily News podcast out of the San Francisco Bay Area. My question is as follows… It seems the human world has been contending with Covid 19 for approximately 10 months. As a result, I imagine that we will start seeing more and more women carrying and delivering babies that were conceived after battling and recovering from the Covid 19. Is there any evidence that this virus affects fertility, embryo/fetus development or the health of the baby?

    Thank you,

  38. Laurie Schultz Aug 28, 2020

    Hi, My name is Laurie Schultz and I am a pediatrician with an MPH in epidemiology form UC Berkeley. I live and work in San Francisco. I have the good fortune to have a sister who is a microbiologist who listens to you weekly. Once, in the middle of July, I was expressing my frustration with the lack of progress and the lack of leadership in regards to COVID and she lightly asks me “Didn’t you listen to TWiV this week?!?!?” and I of course said, “say what???” and a new fan was born. My first TWiV was the Michael Mina show and I have passed on this gem to many people. He also was on UCSF Grand Rounds recently so more people are starting to hear about this. However, I am getting frequently more and more frustrated that this is not happening. School has resumed in SF last week and I am already getting calls about 7 year olds getting headaches from sitting in front of a screen for 6 hours a day. And the middle schoolers and high schoolers are saying that online school is a joke, it is not education. It is just not right!
    I was inspired and intrigued when I listened to the podcast last week about the two surgeons who are doing what I want to do. Fortunately or unfortunately I am as busy as ever at work and have little free time, however this issue takes up a lot of my waking thoughts when not at work. I have written to Rachael Maddow and Nanci Pelosi but no response yet . After last week’s episode, my new aha moment is start local. Maybe start with the Catholic schools in SF that are large enough, and diverse enough and see if they can make it work. So my question is, if I get them to listen to me, how do I get the tests? Any advice?
    I love, love, love that you the virologists are going to change the world. Please don’t stop what you are doing.
    Thank you

  39. I remember you mentioned a resource where you could talk with a virologist. Where is that resource? I’d like to have one talk with a high school club I moderate. Thanks for the great shows.

    • profvrr Sep 15, 2020

      Go to asv.org and scroll down to ‘chat with a virologist’

  40. Brooklyn Sep 14, 2020

    Kindly provide a physical mailing address for you (Vincent/MicrobeTV). I can’t mail you a cheque without one. 🙂 Thanks!

  41. Gretchen Stipec MD Sep 14, 2020

    I am a breast imaging radiologist and breast cancer survivor. I’m interested in doing a podcast about breast imaging and breast cancer. I want to record a zoom call where we discuss the articles and news.

  42. Peter Doering Sep 21, 2020

    Dear Dr. Racaniello –

    Hello, I have a quick question for you. Would UV light be an effective way to sanitize surfaces against SARS-CoV-2? And if yes, how long of an exposure time would you recommend? Thank you for your time.

  43. Melissa Forbes Sep 25, 2020


    I am so grateful for your podcasts. I currently have a podcast, Bird Mite Awareness. I am consistently referring my listeners and readers in your direction. I am so very grateful for your efforts, and dissecting facts, politics, misinformation and ignorance. Carry on with your mission. Thank you for explaining sound science. When you can back it up with credible sources you censor all the ignorant fools out there ~ And hats off to you for shutting down inflammatory and damaging misinformation!

    Kind Regards,
    Melissa Forbes

  44. Mario Pizzolante Sep 25, 2020

    I was introduced to your wonderful podcast by a good friend over a month ago and have become an avid listener. I do not have any kind of formal training in any of the subjects you touch, but I have found your talks quite accessible and educational. Thank you very much for your great work!

    I have thought about getting something from your “MicrobeTV Online Store”, but it, unfortunately, is very US-centered. I am located in Estonia, a part of the EU, but your provider, “Cafepress” do not deliver to my country at all. They do deliver to some countries in the EU, but they still send their packages from the US. This means that prospective buyers might most likely be liable to go through the hassle of dealing with customs declarations and incur extra costs. You might wish to think about creating a separate “MicrobeTV Online Store” for the EU. One possible service provider could be https://www.spreadshirt.net. NB! I am not affiliated with this company in any way. I just googled “Cafepress alternative EU”…

    Yours gratefully,
    Mario Pizzolante

  45. Cathy A. Briggs Sep 29, 2020

    To Vinnie and team,
    Please review this latest information from Johns Hopkins podcast. https://podcasts.apple.com/us/podcast/public-health-on-call/id1501336958
    “When the world first heard about a new respiratory virus, it was a surprise to learn that patients were suffering from blood clots, strokes, and heart attacks. Johns Hopkins hematologist Dr. Robert Brodsky talks with Dr. Josh Sharfstein about recent research exploring the role of complement, a part of the immune system, in COVID-related clotting. Brodksy talks about how COVID-19 may be similar to other diseases that involve complement, and the implications of the theory for treatment and diagnosis.“

    Cathy A. Briggs
    Hillsboro, Oregon

  46. John Stanley Miller Sep 30, 2020

    You probably are aware of the following, but here it is in case you are not:


    John Stanley Miller (70-year-old retired KU librarian, big TWIV fan, and Daniel Griffin groupie)

  47. Hey there,

    i’m listening to TWiV 669 right now and the role of vitamin D levels in COVID-19 infections. My apologies in advance for what might seem like a silly question. Chronic illnesses have made it hard for me to think and focus and i never had any university level education in this field.

    It’s just that your discussion of the possible link between low vitamin D levels and the severity of COVID-19 infections left me wondering why the sole focus was set on vitamin D levels and possible supplementation when you just explained that usually it’s sythesized by exposure to sunlight. Wouldn’t this mean that people with higher levels of vitamin D spend more time outside, possibly pursuing much healthier activities than people who predominantly spend their time inside without any notable physical acitivity? Would supplementation be enough for the latter to see their average infection severity decrease to levels similar to those of people more regularly active outdoors? I’m not denying that vitamin D itself could play an important role in COVID-19 infections. I’m just curious if the study you mentioned looked at the patients’ lifestyles and their general health status as well.

    I would also, with lots of caution, wonder if the often subpar living conditions of people of colour in western countries were a factor in the low levels of vitamin D found among them. Indoors times aside, supplements can quickly get too expensive if you’re living on a budget, especially if you have to buy supplies for several family members.

    I’m truly sorry if this got too convoluted or lengthy, English isn’t my first language and i struggle to keep things short and understandable anyways. Hope you stay safe and have a great week. Thanks for all your hard work.

  48. Darin Plutchok Oct 6, 2020

    Have you seen this ML generated COVID-19-primer (https://covid19primer.com/dashboard) news feed? It’s utilizes an informatics like approach which means it surfaces the most linked to and talked about research paper, research topics, authors, quotes, etc. This might provide some interesting fodder for TWIV discussion as it points to what is getting the most attention in research and in the news each week.

  49. Jerry Weibel Oct 13, 2020

    On the MicrobeTV home page it would be very
    helpful to publish a site map.


  50. Did you see in the Atlantic that Brown University developed a calculator that prompts the user to enter specific data about social plans? The calculator uses current case numbers based on your location to determine your risk in attending your planned social event. If the manner in which you plan to attend is deemed very risky, the app offers alternative behavior and/or circumstances to diminish the risk while still allowing attendance. It is not an app in the true sense of the word, in that it is not available at an app store. It can be found at https://mycovidrisk.app
    Thank you all for being a constant source of scientific facts. TWIV is what we look forward to most each week.

  51. Bradshaw M Mallard, M.Sc., PA-C Nov 6, 2020
  52. Hei Ju NG Nov 7, 2020

    I see the July 16, 2020 issue is missing where Dr Fauci discusses the rtPCR test for covid. Can you please put it back up. I do have a snippet of the video conference but would like to follow the entire discussion.

    Thank you

  53. John Dann Nov 15, 2020

    I still think that you’re misinterpreting the treatment/placebo mix in the Pfizer vaccine trial. The trial protocols clearly state in multiple places that treatment : placebo is to be 1:1. (And there’s no obvious announcement that this has changed.

    I wonder if you’re misreading the sentence in the press release that says ‘The Phase 3 clinical trial … has enrolled 43,538 participants to date, 38,955 of whom have received a second dose of the vaccine candidate. I read that to mean that 38,995 have received both shots of their regime whether that’s vaccine or placebo (though I agree that it could have been better worded). And not that 43538-38995 = 4553 received placebo. I can’t spot anywhere else in the press release that gives a number for the placebo group. What would be the point of enrolling such a small % in the placebo group when you need to get a good estimate of placebo infections in order to calculate efficacy. Maybe I’m missing something but I cannot see where.

  54. Hi Twiv team
    I thought you might be interested in this article and this presentation from the Human Vaccines Project initiative, an every other week presentation called the Global Covid Lab Meeting
    Both of these are about the role of interferon (or lack thereof) in Covid pathogenicity.


    Interferon Deficiency can lead to severe Covid

    Dr. Ann Beaton
    Assoc Prof SUNY College of Optometry
    NY, Ny

  55. Jeremy Slawson aka coastwalker on Youtube Nov 22, 2020

    Long term listnener

    Boys and girls you should interview Dr Kizzmekia Corbeti https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=881eS5UAlA8&t=3s Dr Kizzmekia Corbett: SARS-CoV-2 mRNA vaccine development enabled by prototype pathogen preparedness. Come on Vincent get her on.

    • Jeremy Slawson aka coastwalker on Youtube Nov 22, 2020

      Her team at NIH developed the spike protein that is used in the mRNA vaccines

  56. Ellen Lackermann Nov 22, 2020

    A young family in my practice (31 year old mother, 42 year old father, 2 year old daughter) all had mild viral illness with cough, sore throat, loss of smell. All had positive nasal coronavirus PCR tests. They are all recovering nicely.
    Should they be vaccinated against coronavirus when the vaccine becomes available in 2021??
    Thanks for your great show!
    Ellen Lackermann

  57. Bob Cassady Dec 5, 2020

    Hi folks

    Your shows are so very instrucTWiVe! Thanks.

    I heard Amy say today, that based on non-human primate models, those that get vaccinated for protection from SARS-CoV-2, can still shed virus, if subsequently infected. This sounds like the vaccinated can become carriers for the virus, on a subsequent infection. Did I get this right?

    If I did, and if ends up applying to humans … does this suggest that for COVID-19, herd immunity will not be as available, with those vaccinated now able to pass on the virus, rather than just absorbing it without a health impact.

    I also listened to some “picks” today that spoke of the difficulty of reading (for some people outside of the field itself), some immune system texts … like for me, a Mechanical Engineer. About 15 or more years back I was following a company with a virus that they wanted to use for treating cancer, and I started reading a lot of related published papers. I asked a clinical guy on a chat board to recommend an entry level text that would help me understand what I was reading. His advice was just to keep reading, and it would start making sense. He was right. It worked!!!

    Years later, I realized that what I had done was the same thing that I had done when I was a couple of years old, learning how to speak. The same is happening again as I go through TWiV emersion. Sure, I had to look up “peptide” today, but that’s all that I had to look up to make sense of the discussion.

    Thanks for being there. I’m listening.

    Bob from Comox British Columbia, Canada

  58. Hello
    I wonder if you would consider hosting Dr Katalin Kariko on TWIV
    I just came across the brief mention of her work in the New York Post (please see link below)
    Beyond the issue addressed in that article, I thought that her work is highly relevant to TWIV and very timely, to say the least
    Thank you for considering this suggestion and for your outstanding and engaging podcast
    Best regards, Ella

    Read in New York Post: https://apple.news/AW1s3rLs1RfGvr6NchUDwTQ

  59. Cathy Webb Dec 7, 2020

    2 questions about the mRNA vaccine. background: I am a health care worker, a physician working on an Indian Reservation, and plan to get the Pfizer vaccine in 2 weeks. I am wondering about the mechanics of the mRNA vaccine. (1) what is the advantage of this technology and why not use the standard killed virus type of technology? and (2) what happens to the mRNA after it sends the message? The reason I ask is to try to understand if there could be a risk for long-term side effects not showing up for more than 20 years

  60. Mary Slade Dec 8, 2020

    I am NOT an antivaxxer but have you watched nightly news on the “mainstream media” for the last 10-20 years? It is drug advertising. Possible side effects of the advertised products are often the same as or worse than the condition these pharmaceuticals are supposed to relieve. In some cases these drugs can be deadly. Why should anyone think Sars Covid 2 vaccines are different?

  61. William R Moore Dec 11, 2020

    With today’s report in Reuters of AstraZeneca partnering with the folks who make the Russian Sputnik V vaccine to use as AstraZeneca’s second (booster) shot adds a lot of credence to the suspected cause of their weird Phase-3 Trials results where two full strength shots only got 62% effectiveness while the half strength shot followed with the full strength shot yielded 90% effectiveness. The explanation which you and I favor (that the body developed strong immunity to the vector virus with the first shot which caused the second shot to fail in providing much more immunity because the antibodies/t-cells went after and neutralized the vector virus in the booster shot). It seems AstraZeneca will be doing another phase-3 trial with the AstraZeneca vaccine as the first shot and one of the two Russian Sputnik V shots as the booster. As you’ll recall the Sputnik V vaccine uses two different human adenoviruses as the vectors, one used in the initial shot and the other used in the booster shot to avoid this problem where the first shot causes the immune system to produce a strong immune reaction which attacks the viral vector of the second shot, and reducing the overall effectiveness of the vaccine. [Also I know I’m using the wrong word for “effectiveness” by that less frequently used word escapes my aged mind.] ANyway, here’s the link:

  62. Victoria A Casetta Dec 16, 2020

    So I am going to be in a cookie and exchange. I make three dozen cookies and so does 10 other people. One person will gather, divide all the cookies, then deliver them to all 11 bakers. That way each person only has to bake one kind of cookie but they get a medley of cookies in return. My question is if it is safe? Can the cookies be set out untouched or in a freezer or refrigerator for a set time to “kill” the virus? If so, what is the recommendation to ensure a safe cookie? Thank you.

  63. Mary Alvarado Dec 16, 2020

    I left you a question on Q & A with A & V, about the brain atrophy and brain shrinkage from Covid 19. My brother died 4 days ago, at the age of 73, (with co-morbidities), in Nacogdoches, Texas. The Nurse explained the cat scan to my Sister. It revealed brain atrophy and shrinkage. He was having trouble speaking, word retrieval and extreme difficulty walking or eating. Could you please help us understand this?

    Greetings from Taos, N.M, where the temperature last night was ~1.
    My Friend is the Earth’s virology student, watches you every single day and has been absorbed in virology since he found you guys! He’s obsessed!
    Thank you a billion times.
    Mary and Roland

  64. Tim Wright Dec 17, 2020

    Hi Vincent
    On your podcast your team discussed disease prevention and infection prevention in relation to Pfizer and Moderna vaccines for Sars-CoV-2. Can you or one of the other team members provide links to the specific data that gives the percentages as to prevention of infection and prevention of disease that we have from the present data? I work in a hospital as a technician and the only thing our hospital medical director has stated in a memo distributed to all staff says that is reported to be “95 % effective” which is very vague. I am quite hesitant to send an email to our hospital director just hearing verbal from TWIV data as I am the lowest on the totem poll of the hospital.

    I would like to help make it more clear what our expectations of these vaccines should be and I need the references to back me up. I will also use them to inform my friends on facebook and so forth as to the difference in preventing infection and preventing a disease. Before I started listening to your podcast, I didn’t know the difference either. Thank you for all you and team TWIV.

  65. I heve a good deal of macro pics of organisms that I can’t identify and they are seaming to be a type of extriemeaphobe if I send some of my 3 year research into these things, could ot be possible for an identification of them ?I do however know that some of the pictures are of a tapeworm as was identified by someone on pinterest some years ago however the others that I suspect are a type of human hookworm have not yet been identified your feed back would be greatly appreciated
    Thank you.

  66. antonio ponzetto Dec 27, 2020

    Dear Prof Racaniello, thank you for the exceptional insights into virology matters. Please, could you analyze an in silico paper claiming presence of 14 peptides with 80% or more homology between SARS-CoV-2 spike antigens and those in the Diphteria-Tetanus-Pertussis vaccine. These peptides could trigger B and T-cell recognition and cross-reactivity, accordig to the Author.
    I am not knowledgeable of bioinformatics, and cannot judge on the validity of this approach.
    I remember reading of a bioinformatics department at Columbia Univ, and hopefully you might be ble to clarify the issue. The bioinfo person at my univ answered “I am not an expert in this”.
    the paper by Pedro A Reche on Frontiers Immunol 16oct 2020 doi: 10.3389/fimmu.2020.586984

  67. Sheila Jan 1, 2021

    It’s Dark and Cold in Celsius in Innisfil, Ontario, Canada. With regard to the Public Health England modeling paper purporting to show the increase in (incidence?) of the new variant with a concomitant decrease in the ‘wild type’ reference variant across the “lockdown” period across England.

    Combine the above data with the data suggesting the new variant is more often found in younger people, and the data can be easily explained by the fact that (just like in the summer), young people refuse to comply with public health edicts. AND the “lockdown” period did not “lockdown” school-going children!

    So of course any variant “founded” in children increased during “lockdown” because children were not locked down! And children pass the virus easily among themselves due to poor understanding of risk and lack of attention to hygiene and indeed, simply a lack of adult concentration ability. And since the kids are more often asymptomatic, there is more pre-symptomatic and asymptomatic spreading of the new variant among themselves.

    Meanwhile the adults in the homes of these school-going children keep the wild-type reference in check because they actually ARE locked down, so of course the R-naught is under 1 for the wild-type. Also (speculation starting) perhaps some proportion of those adults have previously caught the virus from some other or related child (because adults who have children end up being around children other than their own children more often compared to adults who don’t have children in their home). AND adults in homes with children going to school probably realize their children are little seas of pathogens and are staying away from them. Or maybe children get re-infected more easily than adults and so the little ones gave the reference variant to their elders and then have come home from school with the new variant that is transmitting at a higher rate simply because children pass more virus to other children than other adults.

    So you can be right, Vincent. The new variant may not be more transmissible; it is merely being transmitted primarily by children to children. All those kids going to school during “lockdown” had been kept OUT of school from March 2020 until September 2020, so it is not surprising that when all these children that have been home with their parents for 6 months finally get back to school, the virus they happen to be “found” with is the one that goes on a rampage through the population of children. Pardon my anthropomorphizing.

    I am just a lawyer but used to be a scientist. I did not finish my PhD in Experimental Psychology (cognitive aging at University of Toronto), deciding instead to stay home and raise my children for a decade. I miss science. Been Twivving for just a month, but am going through your lectures and all the pandemic twivs in order. It be nice if there was a playlist of all the pandemic twivs. Also when I’m done 2020 I want to start at Twiv 1 and climb up to 700 but I couldn’t find many of them when I tried to make my own playlist. Please make a playlist of all twivs in order. I love your podcasts. And the whole team. And Amy is great. Please ask her to stay longer. Cheers.

  68. June Palazzo Jan 3, 2021

    Dear Dr. Racaniello,
    Like many, I’m so glad I discovered TWiV and recently, TWiI. I saw this posted on FB. Normally, I would not look at something like this but I was curious about how some others think about COVID so I did. When I scrolled down through the “information” I gasped when I saw recognizable TWiVers. It made me sad to see that reliable information was being used to convince people that the COVID virus is a hoax. Just wanted to let you that your words were being used in a way that you probably didn’t have in mind. Please keep up the good work. Ironically, I just mentioned TWiV as a reliable source of information on my own FB page about a week ago.

    Also, when Mattel is ready to make a virologist doll for girls, they should make a Brianne Barker doll!


    Westlake Village, CA (Ventura County, LA County adjacent) Where the high today was 63 degrees

  69. Joseph Murray Jan 4, 2021

    ~50 studies worldwide are proving this treatment for Covid works. Dosages vary fro prophylactic to acute treatment. Millions of deaths can be avoided.

    I started the formulation last March, and have adjusted dosages for zero side effects across many age ranges and comorbidity factors.

    Aside from CoViD prevention, this formula has also been proven (real world) to prevent colds, flu, UTIs, and cold sore outbreaks.

    Please look into this. I can provide all my my data if interested. I can also provide link to the clinical trials that support my real world scenarios. We can easily prevent deaths and sickness caused by sars-cov-2, and eradicate the virus. I can detail the mechanisms of action of each component.

    Vitamin D3

    Once per month, 2 dosages, 72 hours apart

    3x per day
    Carrageenan nasal spray


    My formula has saved and changed the lives of my friends and family. As a front line worker since February, it’s also protected me.

    The public needs to know. I just want to help.

    Please advise. And thank you.

  70. Harold West Jan 4, 2021

    Check out Malcolm Gladwell’s revisionist history podcast titled Druid Hills. It contains Information about Emory University COVID-19 vaccine efforts.

  71. Steve R Griffin Jan 13, 2021

    Hi Twivers
    Here is a BBC link to a new drug trial in the UK https://www.bbc.co.uk/news/health-55639096
    The new drug is a special formulation of interferon beta, It looks very interesting.
    Also Vincent why do you persist in mentioning human behaviour being a factor in the new covid19 variant. Mathematical logic is just as powerful as virology in establishing some hypotheses. It looks like a duck, it quacks like a duck, it even walks like a duck, guess what?? Carriers only have to be pre or asymptomatic for an extra day for this variant to become dominant.
    Finally rapid tests are taking off big time here in the UK but i feel they are being used and abused out of context. For instance one off testing of cross English Channel truck drivers. Then a single lateral flow test is being compared to a single PCR test on the media. Rapid tests are a component of a continuous testing process of a discrete population. I think this needs shouting from the roof tops.
    Loving the show since March 2019, rant over

  72. William R Moore Jan 14, 2021

    Did you see the paper called “Gut microbiota composition reflects disease severity and dysfunctional immune responses in patients with COVID-19” which seems to link the micorbiota of the intestinal tract to COVID-19 outcomes especially with long term COVID-19. It is something Dr. Daniel Griffin would be interested in as well. The URL to the paper is:


  73. Vincent, I found one of your virology lectures a few months ago, then TWIV recently. Oddly, I regularly look for updates on coronavirus and TWIV didn’t show up until recently so not sure what the YouTube algorithm thinks I’m looking for.
    First, thank for posting the lectures and doing TWIV, both are informative and especially valuable since the regular news channels are usually providing incorrect interpretations of data, are days to weeks behind the curve on information or just don’t report stuff.
    Question: I was watching an A&V video (BTW, I like Amy and agree she’s opinionated, not grumpy or whatever people are calling it). You mentioned the subject of COVID having come from a lab and both of you said there was no way. I don’t subscribe (based on what I’ve seen) to the theory that it was engineered, i.e. built, in a lab. But I’m curious as to what makes you believe that it is also not a result of deliberate repeated recombination cycles of existing coronaviruses in a lab(s). Wouldn’t that still show a natural evolution of the virus to an animal host? Leaks from labs do happen, so it seems like it is at least a plausible source for introduction of the virus and so would at least warrant investigation, but discussion of it almost seems to be shut down. I have extremely limited knowledge of recombination and no actual experience with it, so I’m genuinely curious in terms of SARS-COV-2 as well as viruses in general.

  74. Hello Vincent – I’m a big fan of TWIV & TWIM and have been studying viruses since 1983.  I just made a monetary contribution to Microbe TV, so……….. you’re welcome.
      One question:  Has anyone ever ‘indexed’ TWIV, by subject, by guest, by papers reviewed, by anything searchable??  That would sure be handy since TWIV is up over 700 shows at this point.
      You’ve done a huge job with this and my virology class thanks you, as do I !!!
    Cheers – MHW 

  75. Ted Haslam Jan 22, 2021

    Is there a schedule when we can watch live?

  76. Maurice Hockman Jan 27, 2021

    Hi Vincent and Team ,
    Many thanks for your wonderful pod cast. I’ve listened to every one since discovering TWiV in about June last year. I’m an ENT surgeon in Johannesburg, South Africa and have recommended TWiV to all my colleagues ENT and otherwise.

    I have a question concerning pregnancy which I’ve not seen dealt with anywhere. I’m aware that there is no data on the safety of vaccines for SARS CoV 2 . However what advice would you give to a couple wanting to fall pregnant where the wife has just got her appointment for the Pfizer vaccine in two weeks time. When would it be safe to consider trying to fall pregnant after the second dose is given.
    Thanks so much.

  77. Hello Dr. Racaniello, I enjoy listening to your podcasts on my neighborhood walks. I am a science teacher in Miami-Dade County and the director of the Teacher Institute for Evolutionary Science. I believe I may have a topic that is relevant to your audience. In 2015, I started TIES with the help of evolutionary biologist, Richard Dawkins. Teaching evolution can be tricky in the US. The purpose of TIES is to provide teachers with content and engaging resources to teach evolution in a way that is effective, but also respectful to the students.What started with just one teacher in Miami expanded to over 80 teacher presenters in all 50 states in just 4 years. By February of 2020, we had presented over 180 workshops across the US.
    Then the COVID crisis hit our nation. I am very much aware of how difficult it has been for teachers and students, my own classes have been greatly affected by all of the changes. That’s why I created free, downloadable units to cover every state’s middle and high school evolution standards. The units come with answer keys, assessments, etc. We also have Spanish versions. They are perfect for online learning; students can work through the units on their own if necessary. These units have been downloaded over 2,000 times since last March. Here is a link to our webpage: https://tieseducation.org.
    If you think this may be a good topic to cover in a future podcast, please let me know. I would love to spread the word that teachers have this helpful free resource just a few clicks away. I have presented the TIES program at several conferences and on a few podcasts. Here is an example, I was a guest on Cara Santa Maria’s show, Talk Nerdy in July of 2018.
    Thanks for your time,
    Bertha Vazquez

  78. Javonne Spitz Feb 23, 2021

    Can you please talk about visiting with my family after I’m fully vaccinated. I will be one of the first in my family to be vaccinated. I’m seeing doctors on television say we should not visit with anyone who isn’t vaccinated. It’s been a long time and I really would like to stay overnight with my children. I’m frustrated because what is this 95% protection from being vaccinated good for if I can’t see my family? I still plan on wearing a mask when out in public, avoiding crowds and continuing to be cautious. I just am having a difficult time with the don’t be with anyone who is unvaccinated I’m hearing on my local news channel. I’m willing to quarantine for their sake, etc. before seeing them. Also, if by bad luck, I were to get covid, I’ve heard that it’s likely to be either asymptomatic or mild. Is this true? Please advise. I’m hearing other people express frustrations too.

  79. Peter Dengel Feb 27, 2021

    Dr. Vincent Racaniello, I really appreciate the access you supply for free virology instruction. I’ve been listening to you on and off for the last year. Along with Dr. Fred Feit, both of you give me a much more scientific understanding about this pandemic. Dr. Feit was a customer/friend from the past when I was a cardiology representative-as of now, I’m retired in beautiful Vero Beach. It’s about time I got involved in your q/a, where do I access this site or is this it? Secondly, it would also really be helpful if you had a bulletin type board with new updates on covid-19 as you highlight and discuss them. My wife and I both have been fully vaccinated via Moderna (two days of malaise) I think you said its very unlikely we could infect anyone, but there is no data to support this?
    Thanking you in advance,
    Peter Dengel

  80. How do I email the covid 19 livestream to ask a question of Vincent Racaniello ?

    • profvrr Mar 28, 2021

      You can go to the livestream on YouTube.com/profvrr 30 minutes before it is scheduled to begin (7:30 pm eastern time) and post a question, or be there when the stream begins. Otherwise send a question to twiv@microbe.tv and indicate that it is for the livestream.

  81. Karen Reeds Apr 10, 2021

    Hi, Vincent

    I watch you on TWIV, but this seems worthy of note on microbe.tv more generally — truly a once in a century celebration of the work of Evelyn Witkin. I apologize for the short notice — I just learned about this.

    Symposium Celebrating 100th Birthday and Research Accomplishments of Dr. Evelyn M. Witkin
    Tuesday, April 13, 2021 | 10:00AM – 05:00PM EDT| Virtual Symposium via Zoom
    Symposium Celebrating 100th Birthday and Research Accomplishments of Dr. Evelyn M. Witkin
    Tuesday, April 13, 2021 | 10:00AM – 05:00PM EDT| Virtual Symposium via Zoom


    “Evelyn Witkin was a Rutgers University Professor from 1971-1991, a Waksman Institute Laboratory Director from 1983-1991, and she has been a Rutgers and Waksman emerita scientist from 1992 through the present. She performed high-impact research in bacterial molecular genetics and was a pioneer who opened pathways for women in the biological sciences. She discovered the transcription repair coupling factor, Mfd, in 1973, and she discovered inducible DNA repair (“SOS repair”) in 1975. She was elected to the National Academy of Sciences in 1977, and she was awarded the Thomas Hunt Morgan Medal for Genetics in 2000, the National Medal of Science in 2002, the Wiley Prize in Biomedical Science in 2015, and the Lasker Prize in Basic Medical Research in 2015.
    Please join us in celebration of Dr. Witkin’s centennial year and landmark discoveries as we host a public symposium and dedication of our new research laboratory to be named the “Evelyn M. Witkin Laboratory.”

    Through the Princeton Research Forum, I’m lucky enough to have become a friend of Evelyn’s over the past 20 years. I promise you that she is worth hearing (the final presentation on the program).
    With continuing thanks for TWiV!


    Karen Reeds, PhD, FLS
    Princeton Research Forum, a community of independent scholars: http://www.princetonresearchforum.org/

  82. I just ran across this article – https://www.pnas.org/content/118/18/e2025622118 – a cheap vaccine -$1

  83. Sherry Young May 3, 2021

    I am very interested in knowing whether you offer transcripts of your all of podcast?

  84. Ricky May 31, 2021

    Hi, Vincent et al,
    Just listened to the episode with Robert Garry, and I think Dickson expressed some frustration over people seeking out additional “evidence” of a lab leak (or election misconduct) because they have a desired outcome. I thought it would be a good opportunity to explain the difference between a positive and a negative coronavirus test result, and the kind of confidence we can assign to it. Most people have this idea that a negative outcome carries the same kind of confidence that a positive one is, but, as this demonstrates, proving a negative is quite difficult.


  85. Hello from Alberta, Canada! My spouse and I have watched TWIV throughout the COVID pandemic. As retired scientists, we have greatly appreciated the non-partisan up-to-date scientific information that we receive each week on TWIV. Dr. Daniel Griffin’s clinical updates are of particular interest and helpfulness. Creating these podcasts is a lot of work so kudos on a job well done! Now for a question: A few family members have vaccine hesitancy and we are looking for a summary of “Frequently Asked Questions” about vaccines, their ingredients, the risks vs. benefits, etc. We have let our relatives know about the town halls but we don’t think they will watch them live. Are recordings available or a summary of common questions and answers? It might actually be a good idea to add an FAQ section to the TWIV website. Any help you can provide will be most welcome. Again, thanks to you and your collaborators for creating such a worthwhile podcast!

    Kind regards,
    Heather Sinton

  86. Jim Cook Jun 26, 2021

    I just listened to a Lex Fridman podcast in which Lex interviewed Brett Weinstein, an evolutionary biologist. Dr. Weinstein is evidently convinced that the virus causing Covid19 was developed in a lab, and he presents what seem to be rational arguments for that conclusion. I think a TWIV dialog with him would be interesting.

    Love your podcast.

    Jim Cook

  87. Gentle TWIV panel,

    I discovered your podcast in the early stages of the SARS-COV-2 pandemic and have found it far the most reliable source for the biological, physiological and related aspects. The relaxed, friendly, objective discourse is refreshing in times when everything down to the shade of your socks may be hysterically politicised. I look forward to many more various podcasts, and have made inroads into Professor Racaniellos’ fascinating virology lectures.

    Public domain discussions on the biology of SARS-CoV-2, and for that matter pretty much any, infection focus on mammalian immune response. Specifically, T cells with the occasional mention of B cells or macrophages. Some mere physicists like myself wonder how creatures lacking such immune systems e.g. unicellular organisms, fungi, plants, have fought off viral attack since time immemorial. The STING pathway appears to be instrumental. Since humans have it too, it begs an obvious question on therapeutic potential. Cursory searches of PubMed and Google Scholar suggest comparatively little research activity on this. I wonder why ? Your opinions would be appreciated.

    Oxfordshire UK

  88. Richard Possel Jul 27, 2021

    I recently contributed $100 to TWIV. Is my contribution tax deductible?

  89. Allan Frederick Moore Jul 29, 2021

    does Daniel G have a written protocol for treating covid 19 patients ?

  90. Do Protists ever injest COVID 19 viruses?

  91. I’ve just discovered your podcast, which is really brilliant! Great work! Just in case you don’t know and any researchers in this field may need, please check https://phagenbio.creative-biolabs.com/ if you want to know more about phage-based resources.

  92. GARY MILLER Oct 31, 2021

    vincent , would you do a special on polio

  93. Marc MkKoy Oct 31, 2021

    Hello Vincent,
    I heard you on the Lex Fridman Podcast, and shortly thereafter, subscribed to TWIV. I’m not a medical professional, or even a researcher; I’m a network engineer, but I’ve always immersed myself in medicine and the life sciences. I find your podcast informative and engaging, with great banter between your guests, along with in-depth discussion that can be overwhelming, yet not beyond comprehension for most everyday people who will invest a little time in research. I find myself surrounded with vaccine skeptics and deniers, and resort to information from your podcast in engaging these people with actual science and facts.
    As a layperson, I appreciate the level of knowledge and experience you and the TWIV team brings to the discussion. I have to admit, I found myself a little apprehensive of the Covid-19 vaccine (Pfizer), but took comfort in the data I found in the more respected medical journals. Having discovered TWIV after I took the jab, I realize it was a good move, and your topics gave me more peace of mind and confidence in the science behind the vaccine.
    I want to thank you and your team for all you do, and I will continue to invoke TWIV when I proselytize and advocate for science and research.

  94. Elizabeth Hillman Nov 24, 2021

    The best vegetarian recipe is “Raise the Roof Sweet Potato Lasagna” at “www.food.com/recipe/engine-2-raise-the-roof-sweet-potato-vegetarian-lasagna-362133”. Rip Esselstyn, author of at least 1 vegetarian cookbook and featured in the documentary, “Forks Over Knives”, says this is his favorite recipe and chose it for his wedding. I think you and your son will like it better than the fake meats. Have a happy Thanksgiving.
    Beth Hillman

  95. David Bogdan Nov 26, 2021

    Hello, Just listened to TWiV 833: Grand theft kinesin, enjoyed as usual. “New” listener since C19, came to you through MedCram YouTube channel from the interview of Dr. Mina.
    The paper you discussed today, “Early COVID-19 cases in Wuhan” (Science), how does this square with the following paper, https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33176598/, “Unexpected detection of SARS-CoV-2 antibodies in the prepandemic period in Italy” reviewed by Dr. Campbell, another “new” follow for me? https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=i195K2vYfnY&t=1147s.
    Here is a second published location. https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0300891620974755?url_ver=Z39.88-2003&rfr_id=ori%3Arid%3Acrossref.org&rfr_dat=cr_pub++0pubmed&.
    Thank you for the science, yes I follow Dr. Daniel’s updates, not that I agree with everything he states. I hope I am allowed this basic right, example, I’ve monitored my vitamin D levels since prior to C19, I know, it is a hormone, so I supplement as needed. I can’t think of any health advice that I’ve taken to heart that hasn’t come from an MD, and always confirmed by literature. Just a layperson, but well informed by listening to TWiV and others with degrees and experience.
    [vaccine status, covid recovered, holding off on getting hybrid immunity for now because I can. Studies, nearing 100 support my choice, not that the CDC or other health authorities would advise as such. Interesting that here in CA, OSHA allows the vaccinated to go mask less at work, even after the CDC changed their recommendation in the spring for all to mask up indoors. I wear a mask at work and when shopping, doing my part to protect the vaccinated. Since the vaccinated don’t wear a mask at my work place, and will shed virus for a few days, are they not the superspreaders.]

  96. Clifford Watts Nov 30, 2021

    Absolutely love your efforts to educate, being a retired MD. You have saved and helped many people!
    I want to donate thru a Donor Advised Fund and need a tax ID # and address to get it done.

  97. Richard Cornell Dec 20, 2021

    I listen to a podcast of a guy called “Eli, the computer guy” He used to lecture doing computer as podcasts. When he switch to do his current series he did it as a money maker.
    It seems by his latest venture he is making money from the number of viewers and those subscribe. Since TWiV has viewers then should you also not be getting monies from You Tube as well. All they need is to subscribe to your channel.
    I’m planning to do a You Tube cooking show even if does not have many viewers it will be done so I can show the IRS that I’m doing something.
    I’m planning to do something like Eli as a news program commentary to bring in money for the IPCC.US since we are meeting only virtual..
    The third one will be by a woman (if she is willing)(comments) who does home health care.
    My fourth to convince my local section of the American Chemical Society to do weekly or daily podcast to bring in monies for the section. They are a non-profit and so far in the last two years they have not had the money come in. That does not look good on the Form 990 at the end of the year.
    As your a 501 (c) (3) next January you need to do a e-postage and if your not aware of it, everything now on when dealing with the IRS will be electronic.
    On the side I have a 501 (c) (3) myself.

  98. Hello,
    First of all thank you all for your efforts to provide information and education to all who need and want it. I will admit that I am not vaccinated so feel free to mock my decision as you tend to do when this position is put forth- I am not as intelligent as you all. When these vaccines came out the first thing I heard were politicians voicing the need to distribute these to the minorities and those lower on the socioeconomic scale. Perhaps unfairly, my mind when directly to the Tuskegee experiments which were conducted on African Americans who were also..poor, uneducated, and lacked options for access to healthcare.
    My reasoning for this decision was based on 3 factors
    1-I do not believe I need it ( I manage my diet and exercise very well ), and the morality rate of the disease was low
    2-The implementation of the mRNA vaccine technology is new
    3-I do not come into contact with many people who would be susceptible (immunocompromised etc.)
    I heard about the old attenuated virus vaccine covavax on this show and have decided to get this vaccine within the year. I don’t particularly want it to be honest, but my 3rd decision point, exposure, will change as I will be attempting to enter a nursing program. Regardless whether its mandated or not, as a caretaker I believe that it would be my responsibility to ensure the health of my patients.
    I have two questions: what is your position on the censorship of professionals who have taken up positions against the vaccines such as Dr.’s Pierre Korey, Peter McCullough, and Robert Malone?
    Also, what would be the odds about bringing some of these “dissidents” on the show to have a conversation? I hear TWIV and the “dissident’s” each bring up their talking points and provide citations for their positions, but I do not have the expertise to identify whether there are flaws in these. A conversation between the two groups would be really beneficial in helping address my concerns.
    Anyways, thank you for your time
    -Friendly neighborhood knuckle-dragger

  99. Chuck Anderson Jan 1, 2022

    Please note that Daniel’s update of the new CDC quarantine guidance for COVID19 (TWiV 848 Clinical Update), while very helpful, lacked precision. At @ 7:00 and after describing the new isolation guidance, he moved on to describe quarantine guidance. He started with quarantine guidance for those who are unvaccinated and for those who are vaccinated but who are six months beyond their second dose of the MRNA vaccine and two months beyond their J&J vaccine. These must quarantine.

    Afterwards (@ 7:50) he moved on to give quarantine guidance for those who are exposed and asymptomatic but who do not need to physically quarantine. He described this group as comprising “individuals who have received their booster shot.”

    Note of this latter group it would be more accurate to say, “asymptomatic individuals who have been exposed to COVID19 are excused from quarantining if they 1) have received their booster shot or 2) if they have received a second dose of a MRNA vaccine within the last six months or 3) if they have received the J&J vaccine within the last two months.”
    Daniel, Vincent and all the MicrobeTV staff, guests, and contributors: I listen every week to your programs, and I find them to be the most helpful of all resources in understanding and responding to the pandemic. Thanks for giving generously of your time and expertise.

    Chuck Anderson
    Contact Tracing Supervisor, District 4
    Georgia Department of Public Health

  100. Ruth Sikorski Jan 7, 2022

    Dear Dr. Racaniello,
    We really enjoy listening to your podcast about viruses (the kind that makes you sick!). What do you think of the Army’s effort to develop a universal vaccine platform against multiple variants of SARS COV2? Please see below for the links to some relevant articles.

    And here’s some of the research that seem to back up this statement.

    Thanks again for everything you’ve done to keep things sane and data driven!

  101. Bonnie Rawot Jan 16, 2022

    Dear Vincent and the Twiverse,
    There is an excellent “Invited Commentary” in the November 15 2021 volume of Clinical Infectious Diseases : “A Paradigm Shift to Align Transmission Routes With Mechanisms” . The need to update our archaic concepts of “droplet” vs “aerosol” is as important as ever as we continue to need nonpharmacologic interventions to fight the ongoing SARS CoV2 pandemic and new respiratory viruses on the horizon.
    Perhaps you could get one or both of the authors on a TWIV episode?
    Thanks for your ongoing efforts!

  102. stuart lynne Jan 22, 2022

    RSS feed not working, TWIV 854 is last episode seen in my podcast program.

  103. Caroline Wong Jan 27, 2022

    Love your Podcast. I am a nephrologist in Bakersfield, California. I realize you are busy and cannot read every article. If you do have time, I wonder if you can read and react to an article given to me by my anti-vaxxer friend who is using this article as evidence not to get vaccinated. The article is written by an MIT scientist which is why my friend put so much weight on it. The article is written by Stephanie Seneff entitled Worse Than the Disease? Reviewing Some Possible Unintended Consequences of the mRNA Vaccines Against COVID-19.
    Thank you so much for all that you are doing to educate us. We are truely humbled.
    Caroline Wong, M.D.

  104. Leigh Watson Jan 29, 2022

    Hi Dr Racaniello,

    I’ve been listening to TWIV since 2020, I think my friends are getting tired of hearing me say “I heard on TWIV that….”. I’m not in the medical field but I have a daughter (now 22) with Down syndrome so I’ve had a lot of on-the-job training over the years, so much so that many physicians have asked if I was in the field at her appointments.

    I just wanted to suggest that, now that y’all are a 501(c)3 non-profit, that you sign up with the Amazon Smile program so that your supporters can designate Microbe-TV as their charity of choice to receive a percentage of their purchases on Amazon. It might not generate much, but every little bit counts — I used to work in non-profits, so I know! I had been under the impression that Amazon’s list included all available 501(c)3’s that were approved by the IRS but I do think that it must require some application process (my experience in non-profits predates this program). Here’s the link: https://org.amazon.com/

    Hope this helps! I don’t know how you do all you do! So many podcasts and teaching, too?!

  105. Marcus Feb 10, 2022

    Dear, A&V, Please don’t get into politics. Joe Rogan hosting Lex Friedman hosting. Vincent was how I got into virology. I’ve invested a lot of time into the valuable knowledge you share. Got a bit upset by Amy’s comments on Joe Rogan.

  106. Michael McCaffrey Mar 10, 2022

    Vincent Racaniello

    Thank you and your group for TWiV and the various other science shows. I have been working through your Virology 101 and following your programs. I am a 67 year old grand father of four who has tried to culture curiosity in my kids and now grandkids. I have also tried to encourage them not to “take my word for it”, but to listen to various sources and try to find reliable sources.

    My sister in law is a bit of an anti-vaxer. She follows several information providers, many of whom I would call miss-information providers. I recently pointed her to TWiV and to you and your cohosts and guest as source she should also listen to.

    I am a patron follower of TWiV and happy to make a small contribution

    I have over time found that it is often time consuming to determine the reliable sources on social media. TWiV has given me a place to point friends and family who may want more information

    Thank you all for what you do

  107. Linda Harvell Apr 16, 2022

    Dr. Daniel,
    I’m watching your recent TWIV report (April 15, 2022), which I never miss.
    As my mother used to say – and she was always right – “Your eyes don’t look right.”
    Today, you look as though you are coming down with something.
    I hope I am wrong. We gotta keep you healthy, or at least vertical.

  108. Clay Lanford May 13, 2022

    Hi Vincent and the TWiXs,
    Just wanted to say thanks for all that you do. I found TWiV during the pandemic, and I must say that not only did it save me from the miasma of misinformation at the time, but I’ve really become a huge fan of all things TWiX since then. I have started contributing over Patreon because I want you to keep helping others like you helped me. Thanks again for all that you do to keep us informed.

    PS – I really wanted to call you Vinny and the TWiXs, but I know you hate being called Vinny 🙂

  109. Ginny Ruark Wessels May 16, 2022

    I am a psychologist who retired from working in the public schools just in time to home-school and provide childcare for my 4 grands during the pandemic. (We’re still masking and distancing due to the lack of vaccine approval for the youngest age group.) I extended your “Win-A-Book Through Covid Prose” challenge to the three oldest grands, and they were eager for the chance to win a book. Here are their entries:

    Bennett Harwood, age 7
    Vaccines will make you immune.
    Everyone should have their shot soon.
    If you get ill
    The virus you kill.
    Then you can sing a happy tune.

    Beckham Harwood, age 5
    I got my shot.
    It hurt a lot.
    But I’m still glad
    Because Covid is bad.
    I wear a mask.
    It’s an easy task.

    Bowen Harwood, age 4
    Roses are red.
    Sick makes us blue.
    I got my shot.
    You need a shot, too.

    Thanks to you and the TWIV crew for distilling essential research and making it palatable for the lay listener.

  110. Bruce Phillips Jun 3, 2022

    DR. Racaniello’s interview with Julius Youngner was extraordinarily informative and entertaining. I was a member of Julie’s Department of Microbiology from 1968 to 1999, eventually becoming a Professor. Julie was not only my boss and mentor, but also a valued friend whom I continued to see until shortly before his death in 2017. As a retired virologist, I have been asked a number of times to speak about influenza and CoVID19, the viruses and the diseases, to a variety of audiences. But more relevant, I am working on a talk this fall to a sophisticated adult education group (VISTAS of Santa Barbara) on the history of the poliovirus vaccines and, in particular, the people involved in those efforts and the lessons learned therefrom. This interview was particularly poignant and meaningful for me. Thanks for this presentation and I wish I could have attended Dr. Rancaniello’s seminar in Pittsburgh. Kudos for this interview.
    Bruce A Phillips, Professor Emeritis, University of Pittsburgh Medical School.

  111. Marianne Jun 29, 2022

    Hello Vincent,
    As I listen to various videos of TWiN, TWiV, etc., I was wondering, is there is a way to do a search inside Microbe.TV? I am not sure if merely googling or YouTube searching would be enough, the way some topics pop up as paid sponsors or are paid to be more prominently highlighted, etc. Perhaps a job for an intern?
    Thank you so much for starting this journey of educating the public, back in 2008. Found your productions this year.
    I have donated to Microbe.TV. Also, my first TWiV T-shirt is arriving on Friday.
    Wishing you much further success at The Incubator.
    Happy 4th of July!


  112. plparshall Oct 21, 2022

    For TWIM-273 on Norovirus:
    I have read that Silver Citrate solutions like PureGreen24 are effective against Norovirus.
    Is that true?

  113. Ovais Shabbir Oct 21, 2022

    Great professor : I am one of your contributor and I am having problem donating you my $10.00 monthly donation which I have been donating for many many months through my visa which never happened before. Could you please email me your address, so I can mail you my check. Thanks. Ovais Shabbir, los Angeles

  114. Robert B McCown Oct 23, 2022

    Just a thank you for having David Quammen on.  I mostly read popular science books these days, interspersed with crime novels.  Mr. Quammen is my favorite. popular science author.Bob McCown, M.D.Apopka, Florida

  115. Also, for legacy giving through estate planning, which I’m doing at this time, it’d be great if your website would include information regarding doing such. I’ve noticed some of the larger non-profits even list their EIN #’s on their website. I’m leaving MicrobeTV.Inc a gift, by the way. Love you guys! I haven’t missed a weekly Clinical Update with Dr. Daniel Griffin in two and a half years (has Covid really been with us that long? Wow) and have listened to several other ‘This Week Ins’ as well. I could go on and on, but instead will just say thank you for all you and the others do. You have a great team and I enjoy listening.

  116. Judith Grossman Nov 19, 2022

    I am listening to TWIV 955 Clinical Update- Nov 18. In regards to the NP from the London Ontario area inquiring about why a doctor at her institution would recommend the Pfizer Bivalent rather than the Moderna bivalent you should be aware that in Canada the only Moderna bivalent vaccine currently available does NOT target BA 4/5 but an earlier Omicron subvariant BA 1 and or BA 2. That is the reason for her question.