Dickson, Daniel and Vincent solve the case of the Two Volunteers With Watery Diarrhea, discuss diagnosis of SARS-CoV-2 in the New York area, and reveal an approach to preventing honeybee colony collapse by imbuing their gut bacteria with the ability to produce antiviral and antiparasite double-stranded RNAs.
The TWiP professors solve the case of the Ugandan Child with Splenomegaly, and reveal that mutations in the P. falciparum genome that confer artemisinin resistance interfere with endocytic uptake of hemoglobin.
The TWiP DVD solve the case of the Child Who Passed Worms, and discuss a non-human primate model for severe malarial anemia.
The Knights of the TWiP solve the case of the Man Who Lost Weight, and discuss a Plasmodium protein kinase that is a malarial drug target.
The TWiPsters solve the case of the Rashy Schoolteacher, and reveal a drug from rotifers that live on the snail intermediate host which paralyzes schistosome cercariae and prevents infection of mice.
The TWiPpers of the bite fantastic solve the case of the Indian Man Who Hiked, and discuss the effects of schistosome soluble egg antigen on infection of lymphocytes with HIV-1.
The TWiP’ers solve the case of the Sudanese Boy With Fever, and reveal antibodies that slow invasion of red blood cells potentiate other malaria-blocking antibodies
The TWiPloid organisms solve the case of the Doctor with Chronic Epigastric Pain, and reveal how levels of linoleic acid in the intestine enable the sexual cycle of Toxoplasma gondii in cats.
The podcastellani hosts solve the case of the Sailor With Dysentery, and reveal the first virus discovered in Plasmodium species.
The metacyclic TWiPomastigotes solve the case of the Child With a Painless Leg Lesion, and reveal how to kill mosquitoes with a genetically modified fungus.
The Leishmaniacs solve the case of the Child With Band Keratopathy, and reveal a eukaryotic parasite with functional mitochondria but without mitochondrial genomes.
The TWiPlicates solve the case of the Child With Retinal Granuloma, and discuss an association of the complement protein collectin-11 with the pathophysiology of Chagas disease.
The TriTWiPomonads solve the case of the Child Who Passed a Worm, and reveal recombination between bovine and human schistosome species.
The Giardians of the Galaxy solve the case of the Woman With a Colonic Stowaway from Hispaniola, and discuss activation of intestinal tuft cells by Trichinella spiralis.
The Tremendous Trio solve the case of the Woman With Steatorrhea, and reveal breakdown of the glycocalyx associated with severe and fatal malaria.
The Podfessors solve the case of the Teenager With Swollen Scrotum, and continue the story arc of Daniel’s favorite cells, B-1 cells, and their association with protective immune responses in human Chagas disease.
The TWiP team solve the case of the Four Year Old with Fever, Headache, and Cough, and discuss the release of extracellular vesicles from Leishmania amazonensis that manipulate the host immune response.
The TWiP legends solve the case of Surfer Sans Septum, and discuss how two symbiotic bacteria in the tsetse fly might allow colonization with Trypanosoma brucei.
The doctors of awesome solve the case of the Woman Who Visited Lebanon, and reveal that immunoglobulins protect the olfactory organ of trout against infection with the Ich parasite.
The TWiP professors solve the case of the Baby With Pericardial Effusion, and discuss whether the flagellate without a flagella, Dientamoeba fragilis, causes human illness.
The TWiPsters solve the case of the Brazilian Immigrant With Heart Problems, and describe how genome organization controls trypanosome antigenic variation.
The TWiPlets solve the case of the Electrician from Tamil Nadu with a Liver Mass, and reveal that dogs and humans share a common Chadian Guinea worm.
The TWiP triptych solve the case of the 9/11 Survivor infested with parasites, and discuss the effect of community ivermectin treatment for onchocerciasis on Loa loa infections.
The TWiP hosts solve the case of the Thai Woman With Red Bumps, and reveal that a master manipulator contacts ant brain tissue to control its behavior.
The TWiP professors solve the case of the Woman With Intracellular Ring Forms, and explore the role of Coxiella and Rickettsia endosymbionts in acquisition of Babesia by ticks.
The TWiP crew solves the case of the Ecuadorian with Immunodeficiency and Chronic Diarrhea, and discuss oral transmission of Chagas disease in mice.
Justin joins the TWiP team to solve the case of the Gentleman with B cell Lymphoma, and consider the finding of Dracunculus species in river otters from Arkansas.
Vincent and Daniel solve the case of the Man in the City with Groin Rash, catch up on the long backlog of email, and present a new case, possibly the most complex one yet on the show.
Vincent and Daniel solve the case of the Panamanian Farmer with Three Weeks of Diarrhea, and discuss how microbes egested during bites of sand flies exacerbate the severity of leishmaniasis.
The TWiP peeps solve the case of the Panamanian Mother with Steatorrhea, and reveal new monoclonal antibodies that effectively block malarial infection.
The Podfessors solve the case of the Itchy Child from Panama, and discuss competition for blood in human malaria-helminth co-infections.
The TWiPers solve the case of the Panamanian Man With Leg Ulcer, and describe how a crab predator preferentially feeds on parasite infected prey – even though the parasite makes them faster!
Shivang joins the TWiP triumvirate to solve the case of the New Yorker With Rash and Pins and Needles, and reveal how agrochemicals increase risk of human schistosomiasis by causing high snail density.
The TWiP-tologists solve the case of the Child in South America With Belly Pain, and reveal how B1 cell IgE blocks parasite clearance by inhibiting mast cell activation by B2 cell IgE.
The three amigos of parasitology solve the case of the New York Lawyer With A Foot Ulcer, and discuss a survey of rodents for the raccoon roundworm in California.
The TWIPniks solve the case of the Man With Diarrhea and 100 Micron Objects In Stool, and discuss the reticulocyte receptor for Plasmodium vivax.
The Estimados Profesores of TWIP solve the case of the Man With Motile Objects, and reveal the secreted and excreted proteins of Giardia parasites.
The TWiPtomaniacs solve the case of the Boy With Visual Disturbances and Itching, and discuss identifying secreted and excreted proteins of Trichinella parasites.
The TWiPians solve the case of the Woman With Anemia, Eosinophila, and a Worm in Her Intestine, and discuss a study on the function and druggability of two malarial aspartate proteases.
The TWiPsids solve the case of the Guatemalan Positive for Rhinovirus, and reveal how to kill all African trypanosomes with a primate apolipoprotein.
The TWiP Wataalamu solve the case of the One Year Old From Kenya With Moving Skin Lesions, and describe how to make mosquitoes refractory to Plasmodium with engineered symbiotic bacteria.
The triple TWiP solve the case of the Peace Corp Veteran with Eosinophilia, and discuss the genome sequence of the hyper-prevalent parasitic eukaryote Blastocystis.
The TWiPwalas solve the case of the Woman with a Worm in Her Eye, and discuss the role of nitric oxide in the resistance of rats to Schistosoma japonicum.
The TWiPsters solve the case of the Child from DR with Poppy Seed Sized Things On His Head Hair Shafts, and reveal how the skin parasite landscape determines the infectiousness of Leishmania.
The TWiPtoids solve the case of the Man from India with a Neck Lump, and explore the role of a transmissible dysbiotic skin microbiome in inflammation during cutaneous leishmaniasis.
The TWiP Titans solve the case of the Man from Queens with a Blister Burster, and explain the role of inflammatory monocytes during Leishmania infection of the skin.
Dickson returns to the TWiP hosts to solve the case of the Woman from Colorado With Loose Stools, and explain how single-sex infection with female Schistosoma mansoni reduces hepatic fibrosis.
Daniel and Vincent solve the case of the Haitian Girl Who Failed To Thrive, and visit two studies that address the question of whether infection with Toxoplasma gondii alters human behavior.
Daniel and Vincent solve the case of the Woman With Anal Area Discomfort, and discuss the multiple functions of a clathrin adapter protein in formation of rhoptry and microneme secretory organelles of Toxoplasma gondii.
The TWiP-tastic peeps solve the case of the Thai Man Coughing Up Blood, and reveal potential therapies for trypanosomiasis that are inhibitors of protein import into glycosomes.
Jonathan from the podcast Arthro-Pod joins the TWiPerati to solve the case of the Peruvian Woman With Inguinal Insect Bite, and discuss warm autoimmune hemolytic anemic that develops after babesiosis.
The TWiPniks solve the case of the Man With AIDS, and explore how secretion of extracellular vesicles influences the social motility of Trypanosoma brucei.
The TWiP Masters solve the case of the Australian Wildlife Carer, and review evidence that nodding syndrome may be caused by an autoimmune reaction to the parasitic worm that causes river blindness.
The TWiPerati solve the case of the Man Who Sat in Feces, and discuss a study on how Dickson’s favorite parasite induces the formation of a collagen capsule.
The TWiPsters solve the case of the Peace Corps Volunteer with a Liver Lesion, and discuss the dependence of Leishmania survival on the gut microbiome of the sandfly.
The TWiP Trinity solve the case of the Peace Corps volunteer with diarrhea, and reveal how immunizing against a virus ameliorates exacerbated leishmaniasis.
The TWiPonderers solve the case of the Timber Worker with Severe Shaking Chills, and describe an experimental malaria vaccine comprising attenuated sporozoites produced by genetic engineering.
The prolific podcast-shedding Hosts solve the case of the Global Health Intern with a snakelike lesion on her foot, and reveal the role of a single-stranded DNA binding protein in differentiation of trypanosomes.
The TWiPanorama solve the case of the Dutch Woman with Wormy Objects in Her Stool, dissect a study on cytoadhesion of malaria infected red blood cells, and introduce Parasitology Superheroes.
The TWiPniks docs solve the case of the Female from Peru with Epistaxis, and discuss the effect of community deworming on immunosuppression.
The TWiPanosome docs solve the case of the Mali Man with Profuse Diarrhea, and review the presence of Trypanosoma cruzi in vectors, canids, and humans along the Texas-Mexico border.
The TWiP triumvirate solve the case of the Thai Woman with Facial Swelling, and explain how Th17 T cells protect against the intracellular parasite Trypanosoma cruzi.
Vincent and Daniel solve the case of the Family with Eosinophilia, and discuss HIV-1 infection and genome integration in the blood fluke Schistosoma mansoni.
The TWiPinella solve the case of the Woman from Guinea, and describe the use of CRISPR/Cas9 to identify essential apicomplexan genes.
The parasite prophets solve the case of the Thai Man with Abdominal Distention, and discuss the finding that metastatic leishmaniasis dependent on a virus can be prevented by blocking IL-17A.
The TWiPtoids solve the case of the Thai Fisherman with Chronic Diarrhea, and reveal a potential new drug for treatment of leishmaniasis, Chagas diseases, and sleeping sickness.
The TWiPlets solve the sad case of the Boy Who Went Swimming, and explain why the tomato is resistant to the plant parasite Cuscuta.
The TWiP troika solve the case of the Female from the Bronx, and reveal how feeding on different plants affects mosquito capacity to transmit malaria.
The TWiP ternion solve the case of the Man from Mexico, and discuss a transgenic toxoplasma vaccine for chickens using Eimeria tenella.
The TWiP trio solve the case of the Woman from Washington Heights, and reveal how helminth infection protects mice deficient in the Crohn’s disease gene NOD2 from intestinal disease by inhibiting colonization with an inflammatory bacterial species.
The TWiP trio solve the case of the bug bites all in a row, and talk about a secreted Toxoplasma protein that is central to the parasite’s manipulation of host cells.
The TWiP trio visit the Bronx Zoo where Paul solves the case of the Four Year Old with Pulmonary Edema, and talks about his career as the Chief Veterinarian and Director of the Zoological Health program for the Wildlife Conservation Society.
Daniel and Vincent solve the case of the Truck Driver from India, discuss why parasites resistant to an antimalarial drug are not transmitted by mosquitoes, and introduce Paul who presents a new case study.
The case of the Man from Assam is solved, and phagocytosis of Leishmania by B-1 cells is brought to you by the Three Twipeteers on this episode of TWiP.
The TWiPtastic trio solves the case of the Surfer from Switzerland, and reveal how taste-chemosensory tuft cells in the gut regulate immune responses to parasites.
The TWiP triumvirate solves the case of the Missionary in Kenya, and review the finding of a soldier caste in flatworms that parasitize snails.
The TWiPanosomes solve the case of the Young Man from Anchorage, and discuss how cestode parasites increase the resistance of brine shrimp to arsenic toxicity.
Michael returns to help the TWiP trio solve the case of the Delusional African Expatriate, and discuss the association of natural and induced antibodies in mice with differential susceptibility to secondary cystic echinococcosis.
The TWiP-scholars solve the case of the Housewife from Kolkata, discuss mutations in the IL17 gene associated with cerebral malaria, and hear a case presentation from guest Michael Libman.
The TWiPyzoites solve the case of the Uncommon Parasite, and discuss the role of eosinophils in promoting the growth of Trichinella in skeletal muscle.
The doctors TWiP solve the case of the Woman with White Worms, and explain the role of a secreted growth factor from a carcinogenic parasite in wound healing and angiogenesis.
The TWiP trifecta solves the case of the Woman from Bolivia with Belly Pain, and discuss a method for population modification of malaria mosquitoes using a Cas9-mediated driver gene.
The TWiP trifecta solves the case of the Professor Who Went to Brazil, and discuss an amazing case of a tapeworm that turned into a tumor in an AIDS patient.
The TWiP-lets reveal Balamuthia infection in the Children from Peru, and discuss resistance to pyrethroids uncovered by RNA sequencing of Anopheles mosquitoes.
The paratenic hosts reveal a case of scabies in the Traveling Salesman, and discuss a role for natural antibody in protection from infection with Plasmodium.
The TWiPanosomes solve the case about the Young Woman who Went to Belize, and relate how sandfly saliva skews the immune response and increases risk of cutaneous leishmaniasis.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel solve the case about the 33 year old Chinese male with watery diarrhea, and discuss whether arsenic in drinking water might lead to treatment failures for Leishmania infections.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel solve the case about the man from El Salvador, and discuss the use of tyrosine kinase inhibitors to treat onchocerciasis and filariasis.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel solve their fishy tale, and present a new case study for your consumption.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel discuss how fluctuation in the price of guinea pig food could help transmission of the agent of Chagas disease, and present a new case study for your consumption.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel review how Viagra might be used to block transmission of Plasmodium falciparum, and introduce a new case study.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel discuss identification of an erythrocyte protein essential for invasion of Plasmodium falciparum, and introduce a new case study.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel reveal last week’s case study and introduce a new one concerning a patient who traveled to Belize.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel discuss how a secreted protein from the protozoan parasite Theileria transforms its host cells via a cellular proto-oncogene.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel review new insight into antigenic variation in trypanosomes, reveal the difficult solution to the last case study, and present another mystery for your solving.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel discuss how filarial infection modulates the immune response to mycobacterial infection, and reveal a new case study.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel explain how trypanolytic factor forms membrane channels to lyse trypanosomes, and present a new case study.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel consider the delivery of anti-trypanosome nanobodies to the tsetse fly via a bacterial symbiont, and present a new case study.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel present a new case study, and discuss the effect of chronic malaria infection on wild warbler life span and telomere degradation.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel solve last week’s case study, present a new one, and reveal how secreted proteins from a helminth prevent diabetes in mice.
Vincent, Dickson, and Daniel provide the solution to last week’s case study, present a new one, and discuss how immune suppression by nematodes increases tuberculosis fatality in African buffalo.
Vincent and Dickson welcome new TWiP host Daniel Griffin to discuss the association of a new Mycoplasma with trichomoniasis, and to introduce a new feature to the show, a case study.
Vincent and Dickson discuss the spread of P. knowlesi in Malaysia, and how Leishmania parasites protect the sandfly gut from bacterial infection.
Vincent and Dickson discuss how malaria parasites induce odors in their rodent hosts that attract mosquitoes.
Vincent and Dickson discuss the exchange of messenger RNAs between a parasitic plant and its hosts.
Vincent and Dickson discuss how infection of mice with helminths induces cytokines that reactivate a latent gamma-herpesvirus.
Bobbi Pritt joins Vincent and Dickson to talk about directing a clinical parasitology laboratory and her weekly case reports at Creepy Dreadful Wonderful Parasites.
Vincent and Dickson review a novel malaria vaccine candidate comprising a parasite protein involved in egress from red blood cells.
Vincent and Dickson discuss how nibbling of human cells by Entamoeba histolytica, a process called amoebic trogocytosis, contributes to cell killing and tissue invasion.
Vincent and Dickson discuss five ways that helminths manipulate host tissues to survive.
Vincent and Dickson review the finding that urocanic acid in the skin is a chemoattractant for the parasitic nematode Strongyloides stercoralis.
Vincent and Dickson discuss the finding of Gnathostoma nematodes in Asian swamp eels from US live markets and wild populations.
Vincent and Dickson discuss an increase in the altitude of malaria distribution in warmer years in the highlands of Colombia and Ethiopia.
Vincent, Dickson, and Sagi discuss evidence that the pathogen Trypanosoma brucei undergoes meiosis and sexual reproduction.
Vincent and Dickson explain the genetic and molecular basis of drug resistance in Schistosoma mansonii.
Vincent and Dickson discuss reversible inhibitors of cruzipain as new drugs for treating Chagas disease.
Vincent and Dickson consider the effects of climate change on parasitic diseases.
Vincent and Dickson review three novel approaches to antimalarial chemotherapy.
Vincent and Dickson discuss evidence that the malaria parasite originated in gorillas.
Vincent and Dickson discuss the high diversity of malaria parasites in West African bats, and a vaccine against hookworm.
Vincent and Dickson review examples of paleoparasitology, the detection of parasites in archaeological material.
Vincent and Dickson discuss how infection with Toxoplasma gondii causes mice to lose their aversion to cat urine, even after the parasites have been cleared.
Vincent and Dickson update the multistate outbreak of cyclosporiasis, discuss the avian malaria parasite P. lophurae, and review protection against malaria by intravenous immunization with a nonreplicating sporozoite vaccine.
Vincent and Dickson update the multistate outbreak of cyclosporiasis, and Dickson reads a chapter from his new book.
Vincent and Dickson review a multistate outbreak of cyclosporiasis caused by the single-celled coccidian parasite Cyclospora cayetanensis.
Vincent and Dickson discuss Myxobolus cerebralis, the parasite that causes whirling disease of salmonids
Vincent and Dickson reveal how invasive harlequin ladybirds use biological weapons against their competitors.
Vincent and Dickson consider a case history of a young man with Blastocystis hominis – is it causing his disease?
Vincent and Dickson discuss the finding that immunity to a sandfly salivary protein protects against fatal visceral leishmaniasis in hamsters.
Vincent and Dickson review the life cycle and pathogenesis of the giant kidney worm, Dioctophyme renale.
Special guest Anthony A. James joins Vincent and Dickson to discuss how mosquitoes can be genetically modified to control infectious diseases.
Vincent and Dickson reveal how malaria parasites avoid lysis by complement in the mosquito.
Vincent and Dickson discuss innate immune sensing of Toxoplasma gondii in mice, and heme metabolism in protozoan parasites.
Vincent, Dickson, and Yosef discuss tetraspanins on the surface of schistosomes as vaccine candidates and immune evasion proteins.
Vincent and Dickson review evidence that a virus of the protozoan parasite Trichomonas vaginalis may exacerbate disease.
Vincent and Dickson meet with Judith Straimer and Marcus Lee to discuss their method for site-specific genome editing in Plasmodium falciparum using zinc finger nucleases.
Vincent and Dickson discuss Toxoplasma biology with Stanford University Professor John Boothroyd.
Vincent and Dickson explain how a nematode manipulates cricket behavior and alters the food web of a stream.
Vincent and Dickson review how sickle cell microRNAs contribute to malaria resistance, and inhibition of innate immune responses by an enzyme from trypanosomes.
Vincent and Dickson answer listener emails about Leishmania, dual infection of vectors, tapeworms, liver flukes, toxoplasmosis, and much more.
Vincent and Dickson review medically important arthropods.
Vincent and Dickson discuss loaiasis caused by the filarial nematode Loa loa.
Vincent and Dickson review the biology and pathogenesis of the amoebae Naegleria fowlerii and Acanthamoeba castellani.
Vincent and Dickson tackle the backlog of listener email, then consider the life cycle and pathogenesis of Trichomonas vaginalis, the flagellated protozoan transmitted by sexual contact.
Vincent and Dickson discuss the life cycle and pathogenesis of Dracunculus medinensis, the filarial nematode that causes dracunculiasis, or Guinea worm disease.
Vincent and Dickson review how gut bacteria help establish T. muris in the large intestine of mice.
Vincent and Dickson discuss control of malaria with their Columbia University colleague David Fidock.
Vincent and Dickson discuss control of malaria and filariasis with the bacterial endosymbiont Wolbachia.
Vincent and Dickson review an in silico pipeline for identifying molecular mimicry candidate proteins in the genomes of parasites, and catch up on listener email.
Vincent and Dickson discuss immune evasion by the cruzain protease of T. cruzi, and novel tetraspanin antigens of S. japonicum.
Vincent and Dickson discuss the promising results of a phase III trial of a malaria vaccine in African children.
Hosts: Vincent Racaniello and Dickson Despommier Vincent and Dickson have a broad-ranging conversation with Charles Knirsch of Pfizer, Inc. about how public-private partnerships can function to control and eliminate infectious diseases. Download TWiP #30 (61 MB .mp3,…
Vincent and Dickson converse with Peter Hotez about global health, vaccinology, and neglected tropical diseases.
Vincent and Dickson discuss medical entomology with Robert W. Gwadz, Assistant Chief of the Laboratory of Malaria and Vector Research at NIAID.
Vincent and Dickson continue their discussion of trematodes, or flukes, which have a snail as a reservoir host.
Vincent and Dickson take on the schistosomes, agents of a series of related diseases in humans referred to as schistosomiasis.
Vincent and Dickson review Wuchereria bancrofti, the nematode that causes lymphatic filariasis, also known as elephantiasis.
Vincent and Dickson discuss the life cycle and pathogenesis of Onchocerca volvulus, the vector-borne filarial nematode parasite that causes onchocerciasis, or river blindness.
Vincent and Dickson review the life cycle and pathogenesis of the world’s most unusual parasite, Strongyloides stercoralis.
Vincent and Dickson discuss possibly the most socially and politically important nematode of humans, the hookworm Ancylostoma duodenale and Necator americanus.
Vincent and Dickson review the biology and pathogenesis of Ascaris lumbricoides, one of the largest nematodes to infect humans.
Vincent and Dickson continue their discussion of nematodes with the whipworm Trichuris trichiura.
Vincent and Dickson move on to nematodes with a discussion of the pinworm Enterobius vermicularis.
Vincent and Dickson discuss the intracellular parasite Cryptosporidium, which causes diarrheal disease in most mammalian species.
Vincent and Dickson continue their discussion of protozoan parasites that cause diarrhea with a review of amebic dysentery caused by Entamoeba histolytica.
Vincent and Dickson review the life cycle and pathogenesis of the flagellated protozoan parasite Giardia lamblia.
Vincent and Dickson discuss the life cycle and pathogenesis of the protozoan parasite Trypanosoma.
Vincent and Dickson consider the life cycle and pathogenesis of the protozoan parasite Leishmania.
Vincent and Dickson continue their discussion of the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii with a consideration of the clinical consequences of infection and pathogenesis.
Vincent and Dickson introduce the obligate intracellular protozoan Toxoplasma gondii, one of the most successful parasites on earth.
Vincent and Dickson continue their discussion of malaria, with emphasis on clinical aspects of the disease.
Vincent and Dickson trace the life cycle of Plasmodium in a mosquito and in a human host.
Vincent and Dickson move on to protozoan parasites with a discussion of the early history of malaria.
Dickson reads his story about sparganosis caused by the diphyllobothroid tapeworm Spirometra mansonoides.
Vincent and Dickson continue their discourse on tapeworms, covering the fish and dog varieties.
Vincent and Dick talk about the anatomy and life cycle of beef and pork tapeworms, and why House was wrong about neurocysticercosis.
Vincent and Dick discuss the nurse cell, a unique structure formed in the host muscle by Trichinella species.
Vincent and Dick trace the life cycle of Trichinella spiralis in an infected host.
Vincent and Dick distinguish among intracellular and extracellular parasites, then discuss the history and general characteristics of Trichinella spiralis.
Vincent and Dick classify parasites according to whether or not they are transmitted by a vector, then consider the implications of long-lived parasites.
Vincent and Dick provide an overview of parasites and parasitism.