Ryan writes:

Dear Twim,

We have a case study to look at 5 LAPD officers with Typhoid fever.


Here is more. According to some of the employees for the City of Los Angeles they cite the homeless issue and the trash issue as some of the factors escalating the typhoid outbreak in Los Angeles area.  So far only the State of California, Los Angeles County, City of Los Angeles are investigating the Typhoid Epidemic.

Anthony writes:

Greatest invention in the prevention of infection.

The attached image of text is from here:

The Biology of Human Longevity:: Inflammation, Nutrition, and Aging in the Evolution of Lifespans

by Caleb E. Finch

The widespread use of cotton clothing — that allowed for aggressive washing, including boiling — has been considered as a major advance in health. This allowed for the control of arbovectors.  Cleaning wool is tedious; before cotton made a clean change of clothes convenient, people tended not to wash themselves or their garments.

Amir writes:

Dear TWiM team, 

Hello from Jena, Germany, where it’s cold but sunny recently.

My name is Amir Nakar and I actually wrote to you a while ago (then from sunny Israel) and was really pleased with the answer you gave me so I decided to write again.

I am doing my PhD on fast diagnostics methods for clinical labs. My project is about fast detection of resistant strains, but I was wondering – what kind of test (or faster/cheaper test) is needed today in the clinical labs?

I have asked some different people this question and got a lot of different answers. For example: 

–          A way to evaluate microbial load in drinking water

–          The same but only for specific pathogens like Legionella or some algea

–          A fast way to determine which antibiotics will work for a patient, particularly with sepsis

–          A fast way to identify which specific bacteria strain is in a urine sample

What do you think? What is missing today to help make this world a better and safer place?

Also, thanks a lot for the hard work, 

I’m really enjoying the podcast!

Anthony writes:

Reducing methane emissions from cattle through vaccination